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We consider the problem of efficiently producing ranked results for keyword search queries over hyperlinked XML documents. Evaluating keyword search queries over hierarchical XML documents, as opposed to (conceptually) flat HTML documents, introduces many new challenges. First, XML keyword search queries do not always return entire documents, but can return(More)
Presynaptic Ca(V)2.2 (N-type) calcium channels are subject to modulation by interaction with syntaxin 1 and by a syntaxin 1-sensitive Galpha(O) G-protein pathway. We used biochemical analysis of neuronal tissue lysates and a new quantitative test of colocalization by intensity correlation analysis at the giant calyx-type presynaptic terminal of the chick(More)
Several lipid-transfer proteins were reported to modulate the plant response to biotic stress; however, whether lipid-transfer proteins are also involved in abiotic stress remains unknown. This study characterized the function of a lipid-transfer protein, LTP3, during freezing and drought stress. LTP3 was expressed ubiquitously and the LTP3 protein was(More)
The Salmonellae PhoP-PhoQ virulence regulators induce resistance to host cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) after infection of vertebrate tissues, and Mg2+ or Ca2+ limitation. The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of lipid A, the major component of the outer leaflet of the(More)
The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors is poorly understood stepwise. Here, we show that histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is the primary epigenetic determinant for the intermediate pre-iPSC state, and its removal leads to fully reprogrammed iPSCs. We generated a panel of stable pre-iPSCs that exhibit pluripotent properties(More)
MicroRNAs are well known to mediate translational repression and mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Various microRNAs have also been detected in membrane-compartmentalized organelles, but the functional significance has remained elusive. Here, we report that miR-1, a microRNA specifically induced during myogenesis, efficiently enters the mitochondria where(More)
Vitamin C, a micronutrient known for its anti-scurvy activity in humans, promotes the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the activity of histone demethylating dioxygenases. TET hydroxylases are also dioxygenases implicated in active DNA demethylation. Here we report that TET1 either positively or negatively regulates somatic cell(More)
Low temperature is one of environmental factors that restrict plant growth homeostasis and plant-pathogen interactions. Recent studies suggest a link between temperature responses and defense responses; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the chilling sensitive 3 (chs3-1) mutant in Arabidopsis was characterized.(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) with autologous implantation of iliac crest bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, which contain tens of thousands of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), recently achieved a promising outcome. METHODS One hundred patients with early-stage ONFH were recruited and randomly(More)
Molecular diffusion in biological membranes is a determining factor in cell signaling and cell function. In the past few decades, three main fluorescence spectroscopy techniques have emerged that are capable of measuring molecular diffusion in artificial and biological membranes at very different concentration ranges and spatial resolutions. The widely used(More)