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We consider the problem of efficiently producing ranked results for keyword search queries over hyperlinked XML documents. Evaluating keyword search queries over hierarchical XML documents, as opposed to (conceptually) flat HTML documents, introduces many new challenges. First, XML keyword search queries do not always return entire documents, but can return(More)
Several lipid-transfer proteins were reported to modulate the plant response to biotic stress; however, whether lipid-transfer proteins are also involved in abiotic stress remains unknown. This study characterized the function of a lipid-transfer protein, LTP3, during freezing and drought stress. LTP3 was expressed ubiquitously and the LTP3 protein was(More)
The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors is poorly understood stepwise. Here, we show that histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is the primary epigenetic determinant for the intermediate pre-iPSC state, and its removal leads to fully reprogrammed iPSCs. We generated a panel of stable pre-iPSCs that exhibit pluripotent properties(More)
The Salmonellae PhoP-PhoQ virulence regulators induce resistance to host cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) after infection of vertebrate tissues, and Mg2+ or Ca2+ limitation. The PhoP-PhoQ activated gene, pagP, was identified as important to inducible CAMP resistance and increased acylation of lipid A, the major component of the outer leaflet of the(More)
Vitamin C, a micronutrient known for its anti-scurvy activity in humans, promotes the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through the activity of histone demethylating dioxygenases. TET hydroxylases are also dioxygenases implicated in active DNA demethylation. Here we report that TET1 either positively or negatively regulates somatic cell(More)
Low temperature is one of environmental factors that restrict plant growth homeostasis and plant-pathogen interactions. Recent studies suggest a link between temperature responses and defense responses; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the chilling sensitive 3 (chs3-1) mutant in Arabidopsis was characterized.(More)
Small RNA-mediated regulation of chromatin structure is an important means of suppressing unwanted genetic activity in diverse plants, fungi, and animals. In plants specifically, 24-nt siRNAs direct de novo methylation to repetitive DNA, both foreign and endogenous, in a process known as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). Many components of the de novo(More)
Imprinted genes are known to be crucial for placental development and fetal growth in mammals, but no primary epigenetic abnormality in placenta has been documented to compromise human fetal growth. Imprinted genes demonstrate parent-of-origin-specific allelic expression that is epigenetically regulated i.e. extrinsic to the primary DNA sequence. To(More)
MicroRNAs are well known to mediate translational repression and mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Various microRNAs have also been detected in membrane-compartmentalized organelles, but the functional significance has remained elusive. Here, we report that miR-1, a microRNA specifically induced during myogenesis, efficiently enters the mitochondria where(More)
Posttranslational modifications of histones play important roles in modulating chromatin structure and regulating gene expression. We have previously shown that more than two thirds of Arabidopsis genes contain histone H3 methylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me) and that trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3) is preferentially located at actively transcribed genes. In(More)