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In mice, all of the six retinal neuron types are generated from common multipotent retinal progenitors, and their differentiation from progenitors is regulated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Previously, we showed that targeted deletion of the atonal (ato) homologue math5 blocked the differentiation of most retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), revealing(More)
Apoptosis is a pivotal process in embryogenesis and postnatal cell homeostasis and involves the shedding of membranous microvesicles termed apoptotic bodies. In response to tissue damage, the CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 counteract apoptosis and recruit progenitor cells. Here, we show that endothelial cell-derived apoptotic bodies are(More)
While progenitor-restricted factors broadly specify area identities in developing neocortex, the downstream regulatory elements involved in acquisition of those identities in postmitotic neurons are largely unknown. Here, we identify Bhlhb5, a transcription factor expressed in layers II-V, as a postmitotic regulator of area identity. Bhlhb5 is initially(More)
LIM-homeodomain (HD) and POU-HD transcription factors play crucial roles in neurogenesis. However, it remains largely unknown how they cooperate in this process and what downstream target genes they regulate. Here, we show that ISL1, a LIM-HD protein, is co-expressed with BRN3B, a POU-HD factor, in nascent post-mitotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Similar(More)
The mammalian retina comprises six major neuronal cell types and one glial type that are further classified into multiple subtypes based on their anatomical and functional differences. Nevertheless, how these subtypes arise remains largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of Bhlhb5, a bHLH transcription factor of the(More)
Members of the MyoD family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors control the formation of all skeletal muscles in vertebrates, but little is known of the molecules or mechanisms that confer unique identities to different types of skeletal muscles. MyoR and capsulin are related bHLH transcription factors expressed in specific facial muscle(More)
Whereas the mammalian retina possesses a repertoire of factors known to establish general retinal cell types, these factors alone cannot explain the vast diversity of neuronal subtypes. In other CNS regions, the differentiation of diverse neuronal pools is governed by coordinately acting LIM-homeodomain proteins including the Islet-class factor Islet-1(More)
Unlike nonmammalian vertebrates, mammals cannot convert inner ear cochlear supporting cells (SCs) into sensory hair cells (HCs) after damage, thus causing permanent deafness. Here, we achieved in vivo conversion of two SC subtypes, pillar cells (PCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs), into HCs by inducing targeted expression of Atoh1 at neonatal and juvenile ages(More)
Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above retinal neurons. Here, we performed a(More)
Brn3a/Brn-3.0 is a POU-domain transcription factor expressed in primary sensory neurons of the cranial and dorsal root ganglia and in specific neurons in the caudal CNS. Mice lacking Brn3a undergo extensive sensory neural death late in gestation and die at birth. To further examine Brn3a expression and the abnormalities that accompany its absence, we(More)