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In wireless mobile ad hoc networks where nodes are selfish and non-cooperative, a natural and crucial question is how well or how bad the MAC layer protocol IEEE 802.11 DCF performs. In this paper, we study this question by modeling the selfish MAC protocol as a non- cooperative repeated game where players follow the TIT- FOR-TAT (TFT) strategy which is(More)
Sodium salicylate (SS) can penetrate the blood-brain barrier to target neurons in the central auditory system. Understanding how SS alters functional behaviors of different types of central auditory neurons will provide insights into the neural mechanisms of SS-induced tinnitus. Here, we report the differential effects of SS on current-evoked firing of(More)
In this paper, motivated by the need of a quantitative model for the power and rate control in IEEE 802.11 WLANs and the lack of related work in the literature, we address the problem by establishing a quantitative game theoretic framework. Our motivation of using game theoretic approach rather than global optimization approach is two-fold: 1) game theory(More)
IEEE 802.11 standards support ad hoc mode which are ad hoc networks with all nodes within each other's transmission range. Time synchronization is crucial in such ad hoc networks. A distributed timing synchronization function (TSF) is specified by IEEE 802.11 to provide synchronization service, but it suffers from the scalability problem due to its(More)
In cognitive radio (CR) networks, a pair of CR nodes have to ``rendezvous'' on a common channel for link establishment. Channel hopping (CH) protocols have been proposed for creating rendezvous over multiple channels to reduce the possibility of rendezvous failures caused by the detection of primary user signals. Rendezvous within a minimal bounded time(More)
Salicylate is the major metabolite and active component of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is widely used in clinical medicine for treating inflammation, pain syndromes and cardiovascular disorders. The well-known mechanism underlying salicylate's action mainly involves the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and subsequent decrease in prostaglandin(More)
Sodium salicylate (SS) is a medicine for anti-inflammation and for chronic pain relief with a side effect of tinnitus. To understand the cellular mechanisms of tinnitus induced by SS in the central auditory system, we examined effects of SS on evoked and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs and mIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal(More)
Due to the dynamic, distributed, and heterogeneous nature of today's networks, intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have become a necessary addition to the security infrastructure and are widely deployed as a complementary line of defense to classical security approaches. In this paper, we address the intrusion detection problem in heterogeneous networks(More)
It is generally believed that mechanical amplification by cochlear hair cells is necessary to enhance the sensitivity and frequency selectivity of hearing. In the mammalian ear, the basis of cochlear amplification is believed to be the voltage-dependent electromotility of outer hair cells (OHCs). The avian basilar papilla contains tall and short hair cells,(More)
Dengue, the most common arbovirus infection globally, is transmitted by mosquito vectors. Healthcare-related transmission, including transmission by blood products, has been documented, although the frequency of these occurrences is unknown. Dengue is endemic to Singapore, a city-state in Asia. Using mathematical modeling, we estimated the risk for(More)