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Molecular approaches to understanding the functional circuitry of the nervous system promise new insights into the relationship between genes, brain and behaviour. The cellular diversity of the brain necessitates a cellular resolution approach towards understanding the functional genomics of the nervous system. We describe here an anatomically comprehensive(More)
Functional heterogeneity has been investigated for decades in the hippocampal region of the mammalian cerebral cortex, and evidence for vaguely defined "dorsal" and "ventral" regions is emerging. Direct evidence that hippocampal field CA1 displays clear regional, laminar, and pyramidal neuron differentiation is presented here, based on a systematic(More)
Program slicing is a technique to extract program parts with respect to some special computation. Since Weiser first proposed the notion of slicing in 1979, hundreds of papers have been presented in this area. Tens of variants of slicing have been studied, as well as algorithms to compute them. Different notions of slicing have different properties and(More)
Localization is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks and its accuracy impacts the efficiency of location-aware protocols and applications, such as routing and storage. Most previous localization algorithms assume that sensors are distributed in regular areas without holes or obstacles, which often does not reflect real-world conditions,(More)
Sodium salicylate (SS) is a medicine for anti-inflammation and for chronic pain relief with a side effect of tinnitus. To understand the cellular mechanisms of tinnitus induced by SS in the central auditory system, we examined effects of SS on evoked and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs and mIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal(More)
Due to low cost, ease of deployment, increased coverage, and enhanced capacity, multiradio mesh networks that utilize inexpensive and readily available Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 wireless interfaces are touted as the new frontier of wireless networking. In a multihop mesh system, the close interaction between topology(More)
The present study investigated whether there is a visual counterpart of the auditory mismatch negativity. Event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a spatial frequency discrimination task. "Match" and "nonmatch" stimuli were specifically categorized according to whether the second stimulus had the same orientation as the first stimulus(More)
Adriamycin and docetaxel are two agents commonly used in treatment of breast cancer, but their efficacy is often limited by the emergence of chemoresistance. Recent studies indicate that exosomes act as vehicles for exchange of genetic cargo between heterogeneous populations of tumor cells, engendering a transmitted drug resistance for cancer development(More)
Islet cell replacement is considered as the optimal treatment for type I diabetes. However, the availability of human pancreatic islets for transplantation is limited. Here, we show that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) could be induced to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells by introduction of the pancreatic(More)
A series of experiments with honey bees demonstrate that their small brains nevertheless possess the ability for topological perception. Bees rapidly learned to discriminate patterns that are topologically different, and they generalized the learned cue to other novel patterns. By contrast, discrimination of topologically equivalent patterns was learned(More)