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The development of vaccines against pathogens transmitted across the genito-rectal mucosa that effectively stimulate both secretory IgA Abs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the genital tract and CTL in the draining lymph nodes (LN) has proven a major challenge. Here we report a novel, noninvasive approach of genetic vaccination via the intranasal route. Such(More)
The major routes of HIV transmission are through the rectal and cervico-vaginal mucosa. To prevent dissemination of HIV to the regional lymph nodes (LNs), an effective vaccine may need to stimulate CTL in the rectal or genital tract and the draining LNs. We report that mucosal immunization by the recto-oral and vagino-oral route or s.c. immunization(More)
The mucosal surfaces represent the primary site for transmission of several viruses including HIV. To prevent mucosal transmission and dissemination to the regional lymph nodes, an effective HIV vaccine may need to stimulate immune responses at the genital and rectal mucosa. Optimal induction of mucosal immunity in general requires targeting antigens to the(More)
The retina of Wistar rats within 1-3 days of birth were dissociated into a retinal cell suspension using 0.05% trypsin digestion. The cell suspension was incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium for 24 hours, followed by neurobasal medium for 5-7 days. Nissl staining showed that 79.86% of primary cultured retinal cells were positive and(More)
Interleukin-2 has been reported to enhance the immune response in diseases characterised by defective cell mediated immunity. The effect of exogenous recombinant interleukin-2 was studied on the proliferative and cytotoxic responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 39 patients with sarcoidosis and 14 healthy control subjects. The proliferative(More)
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