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The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through(More)
A signature file organization, called the weight-partitioned signature file, for supporting document ranking is proposed. It employs multiple signature files, each of which corresponds to one term frequency, to represent terms with different term frequencies. Words with the same term frequency in a document are grouped together and hashed into the signature(More)
BACKGROUND The Toll-like receptors represent a large superfamily of type I transmembrane glycoproteins, some common to a wide range of species and others are more restricted in their distribution. Most members of the Toll-like receptor superfamily have few paralogues; the exception is the TLR1 gene family with four closely related genes in mammals TLR1,(More)
In mature B cells of mice and most mammals, cellular release of single H chain Abs without L chains is prevented by H chain association with Ig-specific chaperons in the endoplasmic reticulum. In precursor B cells, however, surface expression of mu-H chain in the absence of surrogate and conventional L chain has been identified. Despite this, Ag-specific(More)
CD1, as the third family of antigen-presenting molecules, is previously only found in mammals and chickens, which suggests that the chicken and mammalian CD1 shared a common ancestral gene emerging at least 310 million years ago. Here, we describe CD1 genes in the green anole lizard and Crocodylia, demonstrating that CD1 is ubiquitous in mammals, birds, and(More)
Previous studies on the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes in avian species are limited (mainly to galliformes and anseriformes) but have revealed several interesting features, including the absence of the IgD and Igκ encoding genes, inversion of the IgA encoding gene and the use of gene conversion as the primary mechanism to generate an antibody repertoire. To(More)
In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by(More)
For decades, it has remained unknown whether artiodactyls, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, express immunoglobulin D (IgD), although the δ gene was identified in these species nearly 10 years ago. By developing a mouse anti-bovine IgD heavy chain monoclonal antibody (13C2), we show that secreted bovine IgD was present mainly as a monomer in serum and was(More)
Genesis of novel gene regulatory modules is largely responsible for morphological and functional evolution. De novo generation of novel cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is much rarer than genomic events that alter existing CREs such as transposition, promoter switching or co-option. Only one case of de novo generation has been reported to date, in fish and(More)
Recently, many immune-related genes have been extensively studied in ducks, but relatively little is known about their TCR genes. Here, we determined the germline and expressed repertoire of TCR genes in White Peking duck. The genomic organization of the duck TCRα/δ, TCRγ and unconventional TCRδ2 loci are highly conserved with their counterparts in mammals(More)