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The reptiles are the last major group of jawed vertebrates in which the organization of the IGH locus and its encoded Ig H chain isotypes have not been well characterized. In this study, we show that the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) expresses three Ig H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, and IgY) but no IgA. The presence of the delta gene in the lizard(More)
The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through(More)
Based on presently available genome data, we characterized the genomic organization of all three light chain gene (rho, sigma and type III) loci in Xenopus tropicalis. The rho gene locus in X. tropicalis, structurally similar to the kappa gene loci in mammals, was shown to contain a single C rho gene and nine J rho segments. The sigma locus also contains a(More)
IgY(ΔFc), containing only CH1 and CH2 domains, is expressed in the serum of some birds and reptiles, such as ducks and turtles. The duck IgY(ΔFc) is produced by the same υ gene that expresses the intact IgY form (CH1-4) using different transcriptional termination sites. In this study, we show that intact IgY and IgY(ΔFc) are encoded by distinct genes in the(More)
Mammalian IgG and IgE are thought to have evolved from IgY of nonmammalian tetrapods; however, no diversification of IgY subclasses has been reported in reptiles or birds, which are phylogenetically close to mammals. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence of the presence of multiple IgY-encoding (υ) genes in snakes. Two υ genes were identified in(More)
The Toll-like receptors represent a large superfamily of type I transmembrane glycoproteins, some common to a wide range of species and others are more restricted in their distribution. Most members of the Toll-like receptor superfamily have few paralogues; the exception is the TLR1 gene family with four closely related genes in mammals TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and(More)
CD1, as the third family of antigen-presenting molecules, is previously only found in mammals and chickens, which suggests that the chicken and mammalian CD1 shared a common ancestral gene emerging at least 310 million years ago. Here, we describe CD1 genes in the green anole lizard and Crocodylia, demonstrating that CD1 is ubiquitous in mammals, birds, and(More)
The reptiles are the last major taxon of jawed vertebrates in which immunoglobulin light chain isotypes have not been well characterized. Using the recently released genome sequencing data, we show in this study that the reptile Anolis carolinensis expresses both lambda and kappa light chain genes. The genomic organization of both gene loci is structurally(More)
Crocodilians are a group of reptiles that are closely related to birds and are thought to possess a strong immune system. Here we report that the IgH locus in the Siamese crocodile and the Chinese alligator contains multiple μ genes, in contrast to other tetrapods. Both the μ2 and μ3 genes are expressed through class-switch recombination involving the(More)
In mature B cells of mice and most mammals, cellular release of single H chain Abs without L chains is prevented by H chain association with Ig-specific chaperons in the endoplasmic reticulum. In precursor B cells, however, surface expression of mu-H chain in the absence of surrogate and conventional L chain has been identified. Despite this, Ag-specific(More)