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The reptiles are the last major group of jawed vertebrates in which the organization of the IGH locus and its encoded Ig H chain isotypes have not been well characterized. In this study, we show that the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) expresses three Ig H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, and IgY) but no IgA. The presence of the delta gene in the lizard(More)
The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through(More)
Proximity effect is the most severe factor that influences the exposure resolution of electron beam. In this paper, the mechanism of proximity effect is discussed through Monte Carlo simulation of the electron scattering processes. And effective approaches of proximity effect correction are proposed. The theoretical results of Monte Carlo simulation and(More)
Based on the recently released horse genome, we have characterized the genomic organization of the horse Ig gene loci. The horse IgH locus in genomic scaffold Un0011 contains 40 D(H) segments, 8 J(H) segments and 50 V(H) segments. The Igkappa locus contains only a single C(kappa) gene, 5 J(kappa) segments and a 60 V(kappa) segments, whereas the Iglambda(More)
In mature B cells of mice and most mammals, cellular release of single H chain Abs without L chains is prevented by H chain association with Ig-specific chaperons in the endoplasmic reticulum. In precursor B cells, however, surface expression of mu-H chain in the absence of surrogate and conventional L chain has been identified. Despite this, Ag-specific(More)
CD1, as the third family of antigen-presenting molecules, is previously only found in mammals and chickens, which suggests that the chicken and mammalian CD1 shared a common ancestral gene emerging at least 310 million years ago. Here, we describe CD1 genes in the green anole lizard and Crocodylia, demonstrating that CD1 is ubiquitous in mammals, birds, and(More)
The evolutionary origins of mammalian immunoglobulin H chain isotypes (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, and IgA) are still incompletely understood as these isotypes differ considerably in structure and number from their counterparts in nonmammalian tetrapods. We report in this study that the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) Ig H chain constant region gene locus(More)
This review focuses on the diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and Ig isotypes that are expressed in domestic animals. Four livestock species—cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses—express a full range of Ig heavy chains (IgHs), including μ, δ, γ, ϵ, and α. Two poultry species (chickens and ducks) express three IgH isotypes, μ, υ, and α, but not δ. The κ and λ(More)
The reptiles are the last major taxon of jawed vertebrates in which immunoglobulin light chain isotypes have not been well characterized. Using the recently released genome sequencing data, we show in this study that the reptile Anolis carolinensis expresses both lambda and kappa light chain genes. The genomic organization of both gene loci is structurally(More)
Silencing or removal of individual C (constant)-region genes and/or adjacent control sequences did not generate fully deficient Ig (immunoglobulin)- mice. A reason is that different C genes share many functional tasks and most importantly are individually capable of ensuring lymphocyte differentiation. Nevertheless, incomplete arrests in B-cell development(More)