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Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for many developmental events and must be restrained to prevent cancer. A transmembrane protein, Smoothened (Smo), is necessary to transcriptionally activate Hh target genes. Smo activity is blocked by the Hh transmembrane receptor Patched (Ptc). The reception of a Hh signal overcomes Ptc inhibition of Smo, activating(More)
The full scale of human miRNome in specific cell or tissue, especially in cancers, remains to be determined. An in-depth analysis of miRNomes in human normal liver, hepatitis liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was carried out in this study. We found nine miRNAs accounted for ∼88.2% of the miRNome in human liver. The third most highly expressed(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS To characterize IL-17-producing cells, a newly defined T helper cell subset with potent pro-inflammatory properties, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to determine their prognostic values. METHODS One hundred and seventy-eight HCC patients were enrolled randomly. Distribution and phenotypic features of IL-17-producing cells were(More)
Macrophages (Mphi) are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different microenvironments. We have recently found that tumors can alter the normal developmental process of Mphi to trigger transient activation of monocytes in peritumoral stroma. We showed that a fraction of monocytes/Mphi in peritumoral stroma, but not in(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Substantial evidence indicates that inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually derived from inflamed cirrhotic liver with extensive leukocyte infiltration. Neutrophils are the common inflammatory infiltrate in tumors, but their nature and regulation in human cancers remain elusive.(More)
In addition to direct bactericidal activities, such as phagocytosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), neutrophils can regulate the inflammatory response by undergoing apoptosis. We found that infection of human neutrophils with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) induced rapid cell death displaying the characteristic features of apoptosis such(More)
UNLABELLED Although cancer patients exhibit a generalized immunosuppressive status, substantial evidence indicates that the inflammatory reaction at a tumor site can promote tumor growth and progression. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually derived from inflamed cirrhotic liver with extensive leukocyte infiltration. We recently found that(More)
Immunosuppression mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key facilitator of tumor immune evasion, but the source of these Tregs and their contribution to human cancer progression remains unclear. This study investigated the properties of FoxP3(+) Tregs, their prognostic value in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying mechanisms(More)
In our in-depth analysis carried out by the Illumina Solexa massive parallel signature sequencing, microRNA-99a (miR-99a) was found to be the sixth abundant microRNA in the miRNome of normal human liver but was markedly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Compelling evidence has suggested the important roles of microRNAs in HCC development.(More)
Macrophages (Mvarphi) in most solid tumors exhibit a distinct immunosuppressive phenotype, but the mechanisms that allow tumor microenvironments to "educate" Mvarphi are incompletely understood. Here, we report that culture supernatants (TSNs) from several types of tumor cell lines can drive monocytes to become immunosuppressive Mvarphi. Kinetic experiments(More)