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The small GTPases of the Rac/Rho/Cdc42 subfamily are implicated in actin cytoskeleton-membrane interaction in mammalian cells and budding yeast. The in vivo functions of these GTPases in multicellular organisms are not known. We have cloned Drosophila homologs of rac and CDC42, Drac1, and Dcdc42. They share 70% amino acid sequence identity with each other,(More)
Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is important for certain forms of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (reviewed in ref. 1), and the patterning of connections during development of the visual system (reviewed in refs 2, 3). Several subunits of the NMDA receptor have been cloned: these are NMDAR1(More)
The four cells of an external sense organ in the Drosophila peripheral nervous system, the neuron, its sheath cell, and two "outer support cells" that form the hair and socket, are derived from a common precursor, the sensory organ precursor (SOP), after two rounds of division. We determined by immunocytochemistry that numb is a membrane-associated protein(More)
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog egg membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most(More)
The anatomy and physiology of the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction were studied. 2. The dependence of muscle resting potentials on [K+]o and [Na+]o follows the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (PNa/PK=0-23). Chloride ions distribute passively across the membrane. 3. The mean specific membrane resistance of muscle fibres is 4-3 X 10(3) omega cm2, and(More)
How a neuron becomes polarized remains an outstanding question. Here, we report that selection of the future axon among neurites of a cultured hippocampal neuron requires the activity of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), as well as atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). The PI 3-kinase activity, highly localized(More)
The Drosophila peripheral nervous system comprises four major types of sensory element: external sense organs (such as mechano-sensory bristles), chordotonal organs (internal stretch receptors), multiple dendritic neurons, and photoreceptors. During development, the selection of neural precursors for external sense organs requires the proneural genes of the(More)
A complementary DNA encoding an inward rectifier K+ channel (IRK1) was isolated from a mouse macrophage cell line by expression cloning. This channel conducts inward K+ current below the K+ equilibrium potential but passes little outward K+ current. The IRK1 channel contains only two putative transmembrane segments per subunit and corresponds to the inner(More)
Insect dendritic arborization (da) neurons provide an opportunity to examine how diverse dendrite morphologies and dendritic territories are established during development. We have examined the morphologies of Drosophila da neurons by using the MARCM (mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker) system. We show that each of the 15 neurons per abdominal(More)
BACKGROUND During oogenesis in Drosophila, determinants that will dictate abdomen and germline formation are localized to the 'polar plasm' in the posterior of the oocyte. Assembly of the polar plasm involves the sequential localization of several messenger RNAs and proteins to the posterior of the oocyte, beginning with the localization of oskar mRNA and(More)