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After entry into lymph nodes (LNs), B cells migrate to follicles, whereas T cells remain in the paracortex, with each lymphocyte type showing apparently random migration within these distinct areas. Other than chemokines, the factors contributing to this spatial segregation and to the observed patterns of lymphocyte movement are poorly characterized. By(More)
Intestinal commensal bacteria induce protective and regulatory responses that maintain host-microbial mutualism. However, the contribution of tissue-resident commensals to immunity and inflammation at other barrier sites has not been addressed. We found that in mice, the skin microbiota have an autonomous role in controlling the local inflammatory milieu(More)
A central characteristic of the immune system is the constantly changing location of most of its constituent cells. Lymphoid and myeloid cells circulate in the blood, and subsets of these cells enter, move, and interact within, then leave organized lymphoid tissues. When inflammation is present, various hematopoietic cells also exit the vasculature and(More)
The past few years have seen the application of confocal and especially two-photon microscopy to the dynamic high-resolution imaging of lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells within organs such as lymph nodes and thymus. After summarizing some of the published results obtained to date using these methods, we describe our view of how this technology will(More)
The commensal flora can promote both immunity to pathogens and mucosal inflammation. How commensal-driven inflammation is regulated in the context of infection remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during acute mucosal infection of mice with Toxoplasma gondii, inflammatory monocytes acquire a tissue-specific regulatory phenotype associated with(More)
Attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to epithelial cells or tracheobronchial mucin is mediated by surface adhesins. Pili, composed of monomeric pilin subunits, make up one such class of adhesins. The formation of pili and flagella in P. aeruginosa is under the control of the alternative sigma factor rpoN. Isogenic mutant strains with insertionally(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) forms cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs) that are thought to be sites of nucleocapsid accumulation and viral RNA synthesis. The present study found that IBs also were the sites of major sequestration of two proteins involved in cellular signaling pathways. These are phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)(More)
Germline mutation of the tumor suppressor gene CDC73 confers susceptibility to the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome associated with a high risk of parathyroid malignancy. Inactivating CDC73 mutations have also been implicated in sporadic parathyroid cancer, but are rare in sporadic benign parathyroid tumors. The molecular pathways that distinguish(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most prominent colonizer of the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis, but it is not known why this occurs. P. aeruginosa adheres to mucins from normal individuals, but mucins from cystic fibrosis patients have not been studied. To compare adhesion to mucins from cystic fibrosis with other mucins, we prepared(More)
Shifts in commensal microbiota composition are emerging as a hallmark of gastrointestinal inflammation. In particular, outgrowth of γ-proteobacteria has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease and the pathologic consequences of infections. Here we show that following acute Toxoplasma gondii gastrointestinal infection of mice, control of(More)