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Intestinal commensal bacteria induce protective and regulatory responses that maintain host-microbial mutualism. However, the contribution of tissue-resident commensals to immunity and inflammation at other barrier sites has not been addressed. We found that in mice, the skin microbiota have an autonomous role in controlling the local inflammatory milieu(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate a photographic procedure for reflectometry of the topographic distribution of macular pigment density in normal pediatric subjects. METHODS Digitized blue (480 nm) and green (540 nm) photographic images were aligned and subtracted to generate optical density difference maps. An 8 degrees x 8 degrees area concentric with the fovea was(More)
We describe the design, construction, and characterization of microfluidic devices for studying cell adhesion and cell mechanics. The method offers multiple advantages over previous approaches, including a wide range of distractive forces, high-throughput performance, simplicity in experimental setup and control, and potential for integration with other(More)
The commensal flora can promote both immunity to pathogens and mucosal inflammation. How commensal-driven inflammation is regulated in the context of infection remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during acute mucosal infection of mice with Toxoplasma gondii, inflammatory monocytes acquire a tissue-specific regulatory phenotype associated with(More)
Gβ5 is a divergent member of the signal-transducing G protein β subunit family encoded by GNB5 and expressed principally in brain and neuronal tissue. Among heterotrimeric Gβ isoforms, Gβ5 is unique in its ability to heterodimerize with members of the R7 subfamily of the regulator of G protein signaling proteins that contain G protein-γ like domains.(More)
The rapid and robust synthesis of polymers of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (PAR) chains, primarily catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), is crucial for cellular responses to DNA damage. However, the precise mechanisms through which PARP1 is activated and PAR is robustly synthesized are not fully understood. Here, we identified(More)
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