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Color vision is facilitated by distinct populations of cone photoreceptors in the retina. In rodents, cones expressing different opsin photopigments are sensitive to middle (M, 'green') and short (S, 'blue') wavelengths, and are differentially distributed across the retina. The mechanisms that control which opsin is expressed in a particular cone are poorly(More)
In vitro studies have suggested that the NMDA receptor consists of an essential subunit, NR1, and various modulatory NR2 subunits. To test this hypothesis directly in vivo, we generated mice carrying a disrupted NR1 allele. NMDA-inducible increases in intracellular calcium and membrane currents were abolished in neurons from homozygous null mutants(More)
Congenital thyroid disorders are often associated with profound deafness, indicating a requirement for thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptors in the development of hearing. Two T3 receptor genes, Tr alpha and Tr beta are differentially expressed, although in overlapping patterns, during development. Thus, the extent to which they mediate unique or redundant(More)
Color vision requires the expression of opsin photopigments with different wavelength sensitivities in retinal cone photoreceptors. The basic color visual system of mammals is dichromatic, involving differential expression in the cone population of two opsins with sensitivity to short (S, blue) or medium (M, green) wavelengths. However, little is known of(More)
Maturation of the mammalian nervous system requires adequate provision of thyroid hormone and mechanisms that enhance tissue responses to the hormone. Here, we report that the development of cones, the photoreceptors for daylight and color vision, requires protection from thyroid hormone by type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-inactivating enzyme. Type 3(More)
Vision requires the generation of cone and rod photoreceptors that function in daylight and dim light, respectively. The neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) transcription factor critically controls photoreceptor fates as it stimulates rod differentiation and suppresses cone differentiation. However, the controls over NRL induction that balance rod and(More)
The later stages of cochlear differentiation and the developmental onset of hearing require thyroid hormone. Although thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are a prerequisite for this process, it is likely that other factors modify TR activity during cochlear development. The mouse cochlea expresses type 2 deiodinase (D2), an enzyme that converts thyroxine, the(More)
Thyroid hormone is critical for auditory development and has well-known actions in the inner ear. However, less is known of thyroid hormone functions in the middle ear, which contains the ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) that relay mechanical sound vibrations from the outer ear to the inner ear. During the later stages of middle ear development, prior to(More)
The senses are our window to the world, our interface with the habitat in which we live in and the basis for our communication with each other. Although sensory systems are not generally viewed as major targets of endocrine regulation, sensory development is profoundly influenced by thyroid hormone (T(3)) signalling. In this article, we discuss this(More)
Generation of a strong electrical potential in the cochlea is uniquely mammalian and may reflect recent evolutionary advances in cellular voltage-dependent amplifiers. This endocochlear potential is hypothesized to dramatically improve hearing sensitivity, a concept that is difficult to explore experimentally, because manipulating cochlear function(More)