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Color vision is facilitated by distinct populations of cone photoreceptors in the retina. In rodents, cones expressing different opsin photopigments are sensitive to middle (M, 'green') and short (S, 'blue') wavelengths, and are differentially distributed across the retina. The mechanisms that control which opsin is expressed in a particular cone are poorly(More)
Thyroid hormone (T3) has widespread functions in development and homeostasis, although the receptor pathways by which this diversity arises are unclear. Deletion of the T3 receptors TRalpha1 or TRbeta individually reveals only a small proportion of the phenotypes that arise in hypothyroidism, implying that additional pathways must exist. Here, we(More)
Generation of a strong electrical potential in the cochlea is uniquely mammalian and may reflect recent evolutionary advances in cellular voltage-dependent amplifiers. This endocochlear potential is hypothesized to dramatically improve hearing sensitivity, a concept that is difficult to explore experimentally, because manipulating cochlear function(More)
In vitro studies have suggested that the NMDA receptor consists of an essential subunit, NR1, and various modulatory NR2 subunits. To test this hypothesis directly in vivo, we generated mice carrying a disrupted NR1 allele. NMDA-inducible increases in intracellular calcium and membrane currents were abolished in neurons from homozygous null mutants(More)
Color vision requires the expression of opsin photopigments with different wavelength sensitivities in retinal cone photoreceptors. The basic color visual system of mammals is dichromatic, involving differential expression in the cone population of two opsins with sensitivity to short (S, blue) or medium (M, green) wavelengths. However, little is known of(More)
Congenital thyroid disorders are often associated with profound deafness, indicating a requirement for thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptors in the development of hearing. Two T3 receptor genes, Tr alpha and Tr beta are differentially expressed, although in overlapping patterns, during development. Thus, the extent to which they mediate unique or redundant(More)
The deafness caused by early onset hypothyroidism indicates that thyroid hormone is essential for the development of hearing. We investigated the underlying roles of the TRalpha1 and TRbeta thyroid hormone receptors in the auditory system using receptor-deficient mice. TRalpha1 and TRbeta, which act as hormone-activated transcription factors, are encoded by(More)
Amacrine and horizontal interneurons integrate visual information as it is relayed through the retina from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. The early steps that generate these interneuron networks remain unclear. Here we show that a distinct retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β1 (RORβ1) isoform encoded by the retinoid-related orphan nuclear(More)
The later stages of cochlear differentiation and the developmental onset of hearing require thyroid hormone. Although thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are a prerequisite for this process, it is likely that other factors modify TR activity during cochlear development. The mouse cochlea expresses type 2 deiodinase (D2), an enzyme that converts thyroxine, the(More)
Rods and cones are morphologically and developmentally distinct photoreceptor types with different functions in vision. Cones mediate daylight and color vision and in most mammals express M and S opsin photopigments for sensitivity to medium-long and short light wavelengths, respectively. Rods mediate dim light vision and express rhodopsin photopigment. The(More)