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We report here the identification of a novel protein, Smac, which promotes caspase activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway. Smac promotes caspase-9 activation by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs, and removing their inhibitory activity. Smac is normally a mitochondrial protein but is released into the cytosol when cells(More)
Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) have the potential to connect devices and areas of the world that are under-served by current networks. A critical challenge for DTNs is determining routes through the network without ever having an end-to-end connection, or even knowing which "routers" will be connected at any given time. Prior approaches have focused either(More)
Beyond their essential function as the building blocks of proteins, amino acids contribute to many aspects of plant biochemistry and physiology. Despite this, there are relatively large gaps in our understanding of the biochemical pathways and regulation of amino acid synthesis in plants. A rapid (1.5 min versus 20-90 min for standard methods) HPLC-MS/MS(More)
Naive antiviral CD8(+) T cells are activated in the draining LN (DLN) by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral antigens. However, many viruses infect LN macrophages, which participate in initiation of innate immunity and B cell activation. To better understand how and why T cells select infected DCs rather than macrophages, we performed intravital(More)
BACKGROUND During pregnancy asthma may remain stable, improve or worsen. The factors underlying the deleterious effect of pregnancy on asthma remain unknown. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal protein that regulates a number of central and peripheral responses such as uterine contractions and milk ejection. Additional evidence suggests that oxytocin regulates(More)
There has been much debate over the past few years about the practice of moving traditional user-space applications, such as web servers, into the kernel for better performance. Recently, the user-space ¤ server web server has shown promising performance for delivering static content. In this paper we first describe how we augmented the ¤ server to enable(More)
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) encodes several microRNAs. One of these, miR-H2, overlaps and is antisense to the ICP0 gene and appears to decrease expression of the ICP0 protein. To determine if miR-H2 plays a role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle, we constructed a mutant, McK-ΔH2, in which this microRNA(More)
In Drosophila, the 330 kb bithorax complex regulates cellular differentiation along the anterior–posterior axis during development in the thorax and abdomen and is comprised of three homeotic genes: Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A, and Abdominal-B. The expression of each of these genes is in turn controlled through interactions between transcription factors and(More)