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We report here the identification of a novel protein, Smac, which promotes caspase activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway. Smac promotes caspase-9 activation by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs, and removing their inhibitory activity. Smac is normally a mitochondrial protein but is released into the cytosol when cells(More)
Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) have the potential to connect devices and areas of the world that are under-served by current networks. A critical challenge for DTNs is determining routes through the network without ever having an end-to-end connection, or even knowing which "routers" will be connected at any given time. Prior approaches have focused either(More)
Beyond their essential function as the building blocks of proteins, amino acids contribute to many aspects of plant biochemistry and physiology. Despite this, there are relatively large gaps in our understanding of the biochemical pathways and regulation of amino acid synthesis in plants. A rapid (1.5 min versus 20-90 min for standard methods) HPLC-MS/MS(More)
Naive antiviral CD8(+) T cells are activated in the draining LN (DLN) by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral antigens. However, many viruses infect LN macrophages, which participate in initiation of innate immunity and B cell activation. To better understand how and why T cells select infected DCs rather than macrophages, we performed intravital(More)
BACKGROUND During pregnancy asthma may remain stable, improve or worsen. The factors underlying the deleterious effect of pregnancy on asthma remain unknown. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal protein that regulates a number of central and peripheral responses such as uterine contractions and milk ejection. Additional evidence suggests that oxytocin regulates(More)
We have developed novel genetically lupus-prone (NZB x NZW)F(1)-derived congenic New Zealand mixed (NZM) 2328 lines, which are either Stat4- or Stat6-deficient. Our studies show that the deficiency of Stat4 and Stat6 significantly alters the phenotype of the lupus-like disease in NZM 2328 congenic mice. Specifically, Stat4-deficient NZM mice develop(More)
The innate immune molecule surfactant protein-D (SP-D) plays an important regulatory role in the allergic airway response. In this study, we demonstrate that mice sensitized and challenged with either Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) or OVA have increased SP-D levels in their lung. SP-D mRNA and protein levels in the lung also increased in response to either(More)
There has been much debate over the past few years about the practice of moving traditional user-space applications, such as web servers, into the kernel for better performance. Recently, the user-space ¤ server web server has shown promising performance for delivering static content. In this paper we first describe how we augmented the ¤ server to enable(More)
The defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of endogenous Ag processing posits that rapidly degraded forms of nascent proteins are a major source of peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. Although there is broad experimental support for the DRiP hypothesis, careful kinetic analysis of the generation of defined peptide class I complexes has been(More)