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We report here the identification of a novel protein, Smac, which promotes caspase activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway. Smac promotes caspase-9 activation by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs, and removing their inhibitory activity. Smac is normally a mitochondrial protein but is released into the cytosol when cells(More)
Delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) have the potential to connect devices and areas of the world that are under-served by current networks. A critical challenge for DTNs is determining routes through the network without ever having an end-to-end connection, or even knowing which "routers" will be connected at any given time. Prior approaches have focused either(More)
Fungi are the principal degraders of biomass in most terrestrial ecosystems. In contrast to surface environments, deep-sea environmental gene libraries have suggested that fungi are rare and non-diverse in high-pressure marine environments. Here, we report the diversity of fungi from 11 deep-sea samples from around the world representing depths from 1,500(More)
Beyond their essential function as the building blocks of proteins, amino acids contribute to many aspects of plant biochemistry and physiology. Despite this, there are relatively large gaps in our understanding of the biochemical pathways and regulation of amino acid synthesis in plants. A rapid (1.5 min versus 20-90 min for standard methods) HPLC-MS/MS(More)
The relative contribution of Th2 and Th1 cytokines to the pathogenesis of lesions of chronic asthma remains poorly understood. To date, therapeutic inhibition of Th2 cytokines has proved disappointing. We used a clinically relevant model of chronic allergic asthma in mice to compare the effects of administering neutralizing antibodies to interleukin(More)
Regulation of circadian clock components by phosphorylation plays essential roles in clock functions and is conserved from fungi to mammals. In the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein inhibits WHITE COLLAR (WC) complex activity by recruiting the casein kinases CKI and CKII to phosphorylate the WC proteins, resulting in the(More)
Evolution of global monsoons in the Holocene is simulated in a coupled climate model—the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model—and is also compared with the simulations in another coupled climate model—the NCAR Climate System Model. Holocene climates are simulated under the insolation forcing at 3000, 6000, 8000, and 11 000 years before present. The evolution of six(More)
Protein phosphorylation plays essential roles in eukaryotic circadian clocks. Like PERIOD in animals, the Neurospora core circadian protein FRQ is progressively phosphorylated and becomes extensively phosphorylated before its degradation. In this study, by using purified FRQ protein from Neurospora, we identified 43 in vivo FRQ phosphorylation sites by mass(More)
The innate immune molecule surfactant protein-D (SP-D) plays an important regulatory role in the allergic airway response. In this study, we demonstrate that mice sensitized and challenged with either Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) or OVA have increased SP-D levels in their lung. SP-D mRNA and protein levels in the lung also increased in response to either(More)
Naive antiviral CD8(+) T cells are activated in the draining LN (DLN) by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral antigens. However, many viruses infect LN macrophages, which participate in initiation of innate immunity and B cell activation. To better understand how and why T cells select infected DCs rather than macrophages, we performed intravital(More)