Learn More
We report here the identification of a novel protein, Smac, which promotes caspase activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway. Smac promotes caspase-9 activation by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs, and removing their inhibitory activity. Smac is normally a mitochondrial protein but is released into the cytosol when cells(More)
Beyond their essential function as the building blocks of proteins, amino acids contribute to many aspects of plant biochemistry and physiology. Despite this, there are relatively large gaps in our understanding of the biochemical pathways and regulation of amino acid synthesis in plants. A rapid (1.5 min versus 20-90 min for standard methods) HPLC-MS/MS(More)
Neuregulins (NDF, heregulin, GGF ARIA, or SMDF) are EGF-like growth and differentiation factors that signal through tyrosine kinase receptors of the ErbB family. Here, we report a novel phenotype in mice with targeted mutations in the erbB2, erbB3, or neuregulin-1 genes. These three mutations cause a severe hypoplasia of the primary sympathetic ganglion(More)
The relative contribution of Th2 and Th1 cytokines to the pathogenesis of lesions of chronic asthma remains poorly understood. To date, therapeutic inhibition of Th2 cytokines has proved disappointing. We used a clinically relevant model of chronic allergic asthma in mice to compare the effects of administering neutralizing antibodies to interleukin(More)
BACKGROUND Both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures constitute up to 5.4% of all fractures in children in the United Kingdom. Most can be managed with closed reduction and cast immobilisation. Surgical fixation options include flexible intramedullary nailing and plating. However, the optimal method is controversial. The main purpose of this study was to(More)
In naive animals, gammadelta T cells are innate sources of IL-17, a potent proinflammatory cytokine mediating bacterial clearance as well as autoimmunity. However, mechanisms underlying the generation of these cells in vivo remain unclear. In this study, we show that TGF-beta1 plays a key role in the generation of IL-17(+) gammadelta T cells and that it(More)
Regulation of circadian clock components by phosphorylation plays essential roles in clock functions and is conserved from fungi to mammals. In the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein inhibits WHITE COLLAR (WC) complex activity by recruiting the casein kinases CKI and CKII to phosphorylate the WC proteins, resulting in the(More)
Naive antiviral CD8(+) T cells are activated in the draining LN (DLN) by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral antigens. However, many viruses infect LN macrophages, which participate in initiation of innate immunity and B cell activation. To better understand how and why T cells select infected DCs rather than macrophages, we performed intravital(More)
Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein reported to be important for both nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and mitochondrial DNA replication. To evaluate the in vivo function of EndoG, we have investigated the effects of EndoG deficiency in cells and mice. We found that EndoG homozygous mutant embryos die between(More)
Protein phosphorylation plays essential roles in eukaryotic circadian clocks. Like PERIOD in animals, the Neurospora core circadian protein FRQ is progressively phosphorylated and becomes extensively phosphorylated before its degradation. In this study, by using purified FRQ protein from Neurospora, we identified 43 in vivo FRQ phosphorylation sites by mass(More)