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We report here the identification of a novel protein, Smac, which promotes caspase activation in the cytochrome c/Apaf-1/caspase-9 pathway. Smac promotes caspase-9 activation by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, IAPs, and removing their inhibitory activity. Smac is normally a mitochondrial protein but is released into the cytosol when cells(More)
Naive antiviral CD8(+) T cells are activated in the draining LN (DLN) by dendritic cells (DCs) presenting viral antigens. However, many viruses infect LN macrophages, which participate in initiation of innate immunity and B cell activation. To better understand how and why T cells select infected DCs rather than macrophages, we performed intravital(More)
There are no national-level data on cancer mortality in China since two surveys in 1973-1975 and 1990-1992 (a 10% sample), but ongoing surveillance systems, based on nonrandom selected populations, give an indication as to the trends for major cancers. Based on a log-linear regression model with Poisson errors, the annual rates of change for 10 cancers and(More)
BACKGROUND During pregnancy asthma may remain stable, improve or worsen. The factors underlying the deleterious effect of pregnancy on asthma remain unknown. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal protein that regulates a number of central and peripheral responses such as uterine contractions and milk ejection. Additional evidence suggests that oxytocin regulates(More)
The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latency-associated transcript (LAT) encodes several microRNAs. One of these, miR-H2, overlaps and is antisense to the ICP0 gene and appears to decrease expression of the ICP0 protein. To determine if miR-H2 plays a role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle, we constructed a mutant, McK-ΔH2, in which this microRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Memory T-cells are mediators of transplant injury, and no therapy is known to prevent the development of cross-reactive memory alloimmunity. Activated vitamin D is immunomodulatory, and vitamin D deficiency, common in hemodialysis patients awaiting transplantation, is associated with a heightened alloimmune response. Thus, we tested the(More)
We examine the effect of family control on the level and informational content of short sales in publicly-traded U.S. firms. We find significantly greater relative short sales in family controlled firms than in diffuse shareholder firms. Focusing on the potential informational content of short sale activity, we find that family controlled firms experience(More)
We examine the causal effect of unionization on firm innovation. To establish causality, we use a regression discontinuity design relying on " locally " exogenous variation generated by elections that pass or fail by a small margin of votes. Passing a union election leads to an 8.7% (12.5%) decline in patent quantity (quality) three years after the(More)