Lillian Mtei

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OBJECTIVE To determine whether a multiple-dose series of an inactivated whole cell mycobacterial vaccine, Mycobacterium vaccae, can prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. DESIGN AND METHODS The DarDar trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The study was carried in an outpatient facility in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. HIV-infected(More)
BACKGROUND In many resource poor settings only sputum microscopy is employed for the diagnosis of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis; sputum culture may not be available. METHODS We determined the diagnostic accuracy of sputum microscopy for active case finding of HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis using TB culture as the reference standard. (More)
BACKGROUND Active tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected persons living in tuberculosis endemic countries, and screening for tuberculosis (TB) is recommended routinely. We sought to determine the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture in the decision to treat for presumptive TB using active case finding in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. (More)
BACKGROUND The cellular immune responses that protect against tuberculosis have not been identified. METHODS We assessed baseline interferon γ (IFN‐γ) and lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA) responses to antigen 85 (Ag85), early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT‐6), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate (WCL) in human immunodeficiency virus(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying novel TB diagnostics is a major public health priority. We explored the diagnostic characteristics of antimycobacterial lymphocyte proliferation assays (LPA) in HIV-infected subjects with latent or active TB. METHODS HIV-infected subjects with bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) scars and CD4 counts > or = 200 cells/mm(3) entering a TB(More)
Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be used to elucidate the epidemiology of tuberculosis, including the rates of clustering, the frequency of polyclonal disease, and the distribution of genotypic families. We performed IS6110 typing and spoligotyping on M. tuberculosis strains isolated from HIV-infected subjects at baseline or during(More)
BACKGROUND Surrogate immunologic markers for natural and vaccine-mediated protection against tuberculosis (TB) have not been identified. METHODS HIV-infected adults with childhood BCG immunization entering the placebo arm of the DarDar TB vaccine trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were assessed for interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses to three mycobacterial(More)
BACKGROUND Active tuberculosis is common among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons living in tuberculosis-endemic areas, but the hazard of subsequent tuberculosis disease has not been quantified in a single prospective cohort. METHODS Among HIV-infected, BCG-immunized adults with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/μL who received placebo in the DarDar(More)
Background. T-SPOT.TB is an interferon gamma release assay for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The requirement to process within 8 hours is constraining, deters use, and leads to invalid results. Addition of T Cell Xtend reagent may allow delayed processing, but has not been extensively field tested. Design. Consecutive AFB smear positive(More)
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