Lillian Cruz-Orengo

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UNLABELLED Pattern recognition receptor (PRR) detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as viral RNA, drives innate immune responses against West Nile virus (WNV), an emerging neurotropic pathogen. Here we demonstrate that WNV PAMPs orchestrate endothelial responses to WNV via competing innate immune cytokine signals at the(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by a total or partial loss of motor and sensory functions due to the inability of neurons to regenerate. This lack of axonal regenerative response has been associated with the induction of inhibitory proteins for regeneration, such as the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. One member of this family, the EphA4 receptor,(More)
Loss of CXCL12, a leukocyte localizing cue, from abluminal surfaces of the blood-brain barrier occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. However, the mechanisms and consequences of reduced abluminal CXCL12 abundance remain unclear. Here, we show that activation of CXCR7, which scavenges CXCL12, is essential for leukocyte entry via endothelial barriers into(More)
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the inability of supraspinal neurons to regenerate or reform functional connections is likely due to proteins in the surrounding microenvironment restricting regeneration. EphAs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases that are involved in axonal guidance during development. These receptors and their ligands, the Ephrins,(More)
BACKGROUND A number of prostaglandins (PGs) sensitize dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and contribute to inflammatory hyperalgesia by signaling through specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). One mechanism whereby PGs sensitize these neurons is through modulation of "thermoTRPs," a subset of ion channels activated by temperature belonging to the(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) releases a cascade of events that leads to the onset of an inhibitory milieu for axonal regeneration. Some of these changes result from the presence of repulsive factors that may restrict axonal outgrowth after trauma. The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family has emerged as a key repellent cue known to be involved in neurite(More)
The transcription factor Engrailed (En) directs, in the cockroach cercal system, the shape of the axonal arborization and the choice of postsynaptic partners of an identified sensory neuron (6m). Knock-out of En using double-stranded RNA interference transforms 6m so that it resembles a neighboring neuron that normally does not express the en gene, has a(More)
The immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line HCMEC/D3 presents a less expensive and more logistically feasible alternative to primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC's) for use in constructing in vitro models of the blood brain barrier (BBB). However, the fidelity of the HCMEC/D3 cell line to primary HBMEC's in(More)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is characterized by the pathological trafficking of leukocytes into the central nervous system (CNS). Using the murine MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we previously demonstrated that antagonism of the chemokine receptor CXCR7 blocks endothelial cell sequestration of CXCL12, thereby enhancing the abluminal(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes an increase of inhibitory factors that may restrict axonal outgrowth after trauma. During the past decade, the Eph receptors and ephrin ligands have emerged as key repulsive cues known to be involved in neurite outgrowth, synapse formation, and axonal pathfinding during development. Given the non-permissive environment for(More)