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The gp160 complex of the envelope of the HIV virus and its component gp120 are essential for viral entry into the host cell. Gp120 binding to its receptor CD4 and co-receptor, CXCR4 or CCR5 is required for fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The presence of gp120 facilitates immune escape of the virus through its profound effect on the immune cells. It(More)
The identification of several simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIV(mac251)) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes recognized by CD8(+) T cells of infected rhesus macaques carrying the Mamu-A*01 molecule and the use of peptide-major histocompatibility complex tetrameric complexes enable the study of the frequency, breadth, functionality, and distribution of(More)
BACKGROUND Alloantigen specific T cells have been shown to be required for allograft rejection. The chemokine, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) at high concentration, has been shown to act as a T-cell chemorepellent and abrogate T-cell infiltration into a site of antigen challenge in vivo via a mechanism termed fugetaxis or chemorepulsion. We(More)
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonellae and Shigellae have shown promise as vaccine vectors in experimental animal models. Although disappointing results in humans and non-human primates stalled the development of this vaccination strategy, interest in this approach was reinvigorated recently by the development of bacterial(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune dysregulatory functions that may limit anti-HIV antigen-specific T cell responses. We hypothesized that in the context of early SHIV(More)
The importance of IL-4 and its effects in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was studied using the dextran sulphate sodium-induced model of experimental colitis. The model resembles ulcerative colitis in humans. IL-4 deficient mice and IL-4+/+ littermates were used to induce colitis. Activity of disease, extent of tissue damage, immunoglobulin isotypes,(More)
Tissue eosinophilia is a feature of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and other forms of colonic inflammation but it is not clear whether the role of eosinophils in the disease process is to contribute to tissue damage. Interleukin 5 (IL-5) stimulates production and activation of eosinophils in vitro and enhances immunoglobulin A (IgA) production. As(More)
Acute HIV/SIV (human/simian immunodeficiency virus) infection results in severe CD4(+) T cell depletion in lymphoid compartments. During the chronic phase of infection, CD4(+) T cell numbers rebound in blood but remain low in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), even when viral replication is suppressed by antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thus,(More)
Background: Experimental colitis with features similar to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has initially been described. A detailed analysis of inflammatory cells has not yet been described. Therefore in this study we characterized the cells involved in the acute phase of the colitis and compared those findings to what is known about human IBD.
As most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurs via mucosal surfaces, an important goal of vaccination may be the induction of virus-specific immune responses at mucosal sites to contain viral infection early on. Here we designed a study in macaques carrying the major histocompatibility complex class I Mamu-A(*)01 molecule to assess the capacity(More)