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BACKGROUND National surveillance of gastrointestinal pathogens, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157), is key to rapidly identifying linked cases in the distributed food network to facilitate public health interventions. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a tool to inform national surveillance of STEC O157 in(More)
The animal gastrointestinal tract houses a large microbial community, the gut microbiota, that confers many benefits to its host, such as protection from pathogens and provision of essential metabolites. Metagenomic approaches have defined the chicken fecal microbiota in other studies, but here, we wished to assess the correlation between the metagenome and(More)
The global epidemic of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 provides an important example, both in terms of the agent and its resistance, of a widely disseminated zoonotic pathogen. Here, with an unprecedented national collection of isolates collected contemporaneously from humans and animals and including a sample of internationally derived(More)
Taurine chloramine (TauCl) is a major chloramine generated in activated neutrophils as a result of the reaction of highly toxic hypochlorous acid and taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in cytosol. In this study we have tested the influence of TauCl on the properties of murine dendritic cells (DC), the major cell population involved in the initiation(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are extracellular pathogens that employ a type III secretion system to export translocator and effector proteins, proteins which facilitates colonization of the mucosal surface of the intestine via formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. The genes encoding the proteins for A/E(More)
OBJECTIVES Serum samples, collected from 94 European wild boar (Sus scrofa) during the hunting seasons 2006 -2010 from different regions of Greece, were examined in order to estimate the role of these wildlife species as reservoir of pathogens important for livestock and/or public health. MATERIALS AND METHODS The assays used for this purpose were(More)
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a recently emerged zoonotic pathogen with considerable morbidity. Since the emergence of this serotype in the 1980s, research has focussed on unravelling the evolutionary events from the E. coli O55:H7 ancestor to the contemporaneous globally dispersed strains observed today. In this study, the(More)
BACKGROUND The gut microbiota is thought to play a key role in the development of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Shifts in the composition of resident bacteria have been postulated to drive the chronic inflammation seen in both diseases (the "dysbiosis" hypothesis). We therefore specifically sought to(More)
Citrobacter rodentium is a member of a group of pathogens that colonize the lumen of the host gastrointestinal tract via attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion formation. C. rodentium, which causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice, is used as an in vivo model system for the clinically significant A/E pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic(More)
A major obstacle for the development of effective immunotherapy is the ability of tumors to escape the immune system. The possibility to kill tumor cells because they are recognized as infected rather than as malignant could help overcome immune escape mechanisms. Here we report a conceptually new approach of cancer immunotherapy based on in vivo infection(More)