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Annual, seasonal and semiannual variations of F2-layer electron density (NmF2) and height (hmF2) have been compared with the coupled thermosphere± ionosphere±plasmasphere computational model (CTIP), for geomagnetically quiet conditions. Compared with results from ionosonde data from midlatitudes, CTIP reproduces quite well many observed features of NmF2,(More)
The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2) at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP), without recourse to external in¯uences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present(More)
Using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), the chemical composition and size distributions of lead (Pb)-containing particles with diameter from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm in Beijing were analyzed in the spring of 2011 during clear, hazy, and dusty days. Based on mass spectral features of particles, cluster analysis was applied to Pb-containing(More)
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