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Although convulsive disorders have been associated with immune abnormalities, little is known about cytokine production in epileptic patients. We evaluated the concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from epileptic(More)
Immune abnormalities have been found in epileptic patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Phenytoin (PHT) produces a decrease in serum IgA and IgM levels and a decrease in blastic transformation of circulating lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemoagglutinin (PHA). The effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) on the immune response are still conflicting. To(More)
The cosmic ray spectrum has been shown to extend well beyond 10 20 eV. With nearly 20 events observed in the last 40 years, it is now established that particles are accelerated or produced in the universe with energies near 10 21 eV. In all production models neutrinos and photons are part of the cosmic ray flux. In acceleration models (bottom-up models),(More)
Functional interactions between neurons, vasculature, and glia within neurovascular units are critical for maintenance of the retina and other CNS tissues. For example, the architecture of the neurosensory retina is a highly organized structure with alternating layers of neurons and blood vessels that match the metabolic demand of neuronal activity with an(More)
Photoreceptors are the most numerous and metabolically demanding cells in the retina. Their primary nutrient source is the choriocapillaris, and both the choriocapillaris and photoreceptors require trophic and functional support from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Defects in RPE, photoreceptors, and the choriocapillaris are characteristic of(More)
The impact of stress and its neuroendocrine correlates on immune function are well established and individual variations could be attributed to modulation by personality characteristics. To assess the influence of everyday life stress and personality on neuroendocrine and immune function, we administered, to 18 healthy adults, the Minnesota Multiphasic(More)
Fluorocarbons are lipophobic and non-polar molecules that exhibit remarkable biocompatibility, with applications in liquid ventilation and synthetic blood. The unique properties of these compounds have also enabled mass spectrometry imaging of tissues where the fluorocarbons act as a Teflon-like coating for nanostructured surfaces to assist in(More)
Phototransduction is accomplished in the retina by photoreceptor neurons and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Photoreceptors rely heavily on the RPE, and death or dysfunction of RPE is characteristic of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a very common neurodegenerative disease for which no cure exists. RPE replacement is a promising therapeutic(More)
A 53-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with a severe headache, bilateral eye pain, blurred vision and photophobia. She started oral topiramate 25 mg daily for migraine prophylaxis the evening before. Symptoms immediately started upon awakening, and she was brought to our emergency department. She reported a history of allergy to(More)