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Although it is well known that high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated the effect of stimulation from low to high frequencies on rat STN neurons in naive and dopamine-depleted slices using whole-cell,(More)
Deep-brain stimulation at high frequency is now considered the most effective neurosurgical therapy for movement disorders. An electrode is chronically implanted in a particular area of the brain and, when continuously stimulated, it significantly alleviates motor symptoms. In Parkinson's disease, common target nuclei of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) are(More)
Excessive burst firing in the dopamine-depleted basal ganglia correlates with severe motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease that are attenuated by high frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Here we test the hypothesis that pathological bursts in dopamine-deprived basal ganglia are generated within the STN and transmitted to(More)
In clinical conditions, high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of subthalamic (STN) neurons in Parkinson's disease is empirically applied at > or =100 Hz (130-185 Hz), with pulses of short duration (60-100 micros) and 1- to 3-mA amplitude. Other parameter values produce no effect or aggravate the symptoms. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that(More)
How does deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied at high frequency (100 Hz and above, HFS) in diverse points of cortico-basal ganglia thalamo-cortical loops alleviate symptoms of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorders? Do the effects of HFS stem solely or even largely from local effects on the(More)
Impairments of synaptic plasticity are a hallmark of several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD) which results from the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta leading to abnormal activity within the basal ganglia (BG) network and pathological motor symptoms. Indeed, disrupted plasticity at(More)
Life cycles of many detritivores are synchronized to the autumnal input of leaf material in temperate forested headwaters, though some conditions that occur at this season does not seem the most appropriate for an optimal development and growth of individuals. We hypothesized that spring–summer conditions characterized by high temperature and low discharge(More)
In clinical conditions high frequency stimulation (HFS) of subthalamic (STN) neurons in Parkinson's disease is empirically applied at 100 Hz or above (130-185 Hz), with pulses of short duration (60-100 µs) and 1-3 mA amplitude. Other parameter values produce no effect or aggravate the symptoms. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie(More)
We studied two forested, headwater streams to compare patterns of invertebrate community structure and consequences for ecosystem functioning in two temperate locations, Galicia (NW Spain) and Vancouver (SW Canada). The two sites were selected due to the similar dominance of congeneric invertebrate species, as well as similarity in their hydromorphological(More)