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BACKGROUND In recent years, a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases has gained increased attention. Although bipolar disorder appears to be associated with altered serum cytokine levels, a putative immunological contribution to its pathophysiology remains to be established. Hitherto, no direct analyses of cerebrospinal fluid(More)
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the glia-derived N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) have consistently been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study based on CSF KYNA in bipolar disorder and found support for an association with a common variant within(More)
Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) able to react to heterologous viruses are generated during natural HIV-1 infection in some individuals. Further knowledge is required in order to understand the factors contributing to induction of cross-reactive NAb responses. Here a well-established model of experimental pathogenic infection in cynomolgus macaques, which(More)
aspects of the brain's inflammatory response, including the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulation of microglial activation. 1–4 The endo-cannabinoid system is composed of two G-protein-coupled receptors designated as CB1 and CB2 expressed throughout the body and notably by neural stem cells. 5 We have previously shown that stimulation of the(More)
Dendritic cells present microbial antigens to T cells after uptake of apoptotic vesicles from infected cells. We previously reported that immunizations with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus (MuLV) infected cells lead to induction of both cellular and humoral immune responses as well as resistance to mucosal challenge with live HIV-1/MuLV infected(More)
Ag-presenting dendritic cells present viral Ags to T cells after uptake of apoptotic bodies derived from virus-infected cells in vitro. However, it is unclear whether apoptotic virus-infected cells are capable of generating immunity in vivo. In this study, we show that inoculation of mice with apoptotic HIV-1/murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-infected cells(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are activated by signaling via pathogen-specific receptors or exposure to inflammatory mediators. Here we show that co-culturing DCs with apoptotic HIV-infected activated CD4(+) T cells (ApoInf) or apoptotic uninfected activated CD4(+) T cells (ApoAct) induced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine release. In addition, we(More)