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BACKGROUND In recent years, a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases has gained increased attention. Although bipolar disorder appears to be associated with altered serum cytokine levels, a putative immunological contribution to its pathophysiology remains to be established. Hitherto, no direct analyses of cerebrospinal fluid(More)
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of the glia-derived N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA) have consistently been implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study based on CSF KYNA in bipolar disorder and found support for an association with a common variant within(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) can be activated by signaling via pathogen receptors, by interaction with activated T cells or by exposure to inflammatory mediators. Clearance of apoptotic cells by DCs is generally considered a silent event that is not associated with an inflammatory response. Necrotic cell death, in contrast, leads to induction of inflammation.(More)
In this study we compared the efficacy of live attenuated human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) vaccine alone versus boosting with live non-pathogenic HIV-2 following priming with ALVAC HIV-2 (recombinant canarypox virus expressing HIV-2 env, gag and pol). Six monkeys were first inoculated intravenously with live HIV-2(SBL-6669) and 7 to 10 months(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with the capacity to prime naive T cells for efficient cellular responses against pathogens such as HIV-1. DCs are also susceptible to HIV-1 infection, which may impair their ability to induce immunity. Here, we examined the ability of HIV-1-infected, in vitro-derived DCs to respond to CD40 ligand (CD40L)(More)
Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) able to react to heterologous viruses are generated during natural HIV-1 infection in some individuals. Further knowledge is required in order to understand the factors contributing to induction of cross-reactive NAb responses. Here a well-established model of experimental pathogenic infection in cynomolgus macaques, which(More)
In this study we have evaluated the concordance between serology, using five commercially available antibody assays designed to discriminate between HIV-1 and HIV-2, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infection. Thirty-seven HIV-1 and HIV-2 dually reactive serum samples from individuals in Guinea-Bissau with(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes the MHC class I-like molecule UL18, which binds with high affinity to the leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1 (LIR-1), an inhibitory receptor commonly expressed on myeloid cells and subsets of NK and T cells. The exact role of UL18 is not known, in particular in relation to its proposed role in HCMV immune escape. Given the(More)
Suppression of immune activation and increased inflammation are prevalent during viral infection. To investigate the role of inflammation in HIV transmission, we studied the infectious and inflammatory milieu in cervical mucosa from HIV-1- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-coinfected and HPV-monoinfected women. The numbers of cytokine-, chemokine-, and(More)