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Cell death is generally believed to occur either by accidental, lytic necrosis or by programmed cell death, that is, apoptosis. The initiation and execution of cell death, however, is far more complex and includes pathways like caspase-independent apoptosis or actively triggered necrosis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced(More)
The intracellular pathways leading to mitochondrial activation and subsequent cell death in the ceramide-mediated stress response have been intensively studied in recent years. Experimental evidence has been provided that ceramide-induced apoptosis is inhibited by overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family. However, the direct effect of(More)
The human INK4a gene locus encodes two structurally unrelated tumor suppressor proteins, p16(INK4a) and p14(ARF), which are frequently inactivated in human cancer. Whereas p16(INK4a) acts through engagement of the Rb-cdk4/6-cyclin D pathway, both the pro-apoptotic and cell cycle-regulatory functions of p14(ARF) were shown to be primarily dependent on the(More)
Costimulation is essential for induction of T lymphocyte proliferation and inhibition of activation-induced cell death. While signaling pathways activated following the ligation of the costimulatory molecule CD28 are well defined, less is known about the molecular events induced by alternative costimulators. CD137/4-1BB, a costimulatory member of the tumor(More)
Nbk/Bik (natural born killer/Bcl-2-interacting killer) is a tissue-specific BH3-only protein whose molecular function is still largely unknown. To investigate the mechanism of Nbk action, we established a single- vector adenoviral system based on the Tet-off conditional expression of Nbk. Upon Nbk expression, only Bax-positive, but not Bax-deficient cells(More)
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been successfully targeted as a breast cancer-associated antigen by various strategies. HER2 is also overexpressed in other solid tumors such as stomach cancer, as well as in hematological malignancies such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. HER2-targeted therapies are currently under clinical investigation(More)
The hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR/Rhamm) is overexpressed in numerous tumor types, including acute lymphoid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Several studies have reported the existence of T-cell responses directed against HMMR in AML patients that are linked to better clinical outcome. Therefore, we explored the use of HMMR-specific(More)
Mutants of the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of human influenza virus A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) encoding HA proteins that are proteolytically cleaved intracellularly, defective in binding to cellular receptors or defective for acylation within the cytoplasmic C terminus have been generated. Here, the properties of these mutated HA molecules are described and their(More)
Redirecting Ag specificity by transfer of TCR genes into PBLs is an attractive method to generate large numbers of cytotoxic T cells for immunotherapy of cancer and viral diseases. However, transferred TCR chains can pair with endogenous TCR chains, resulting in the formation of mispaired TCR dimers and decreased or unspecific reactivity. TCR gene transfer(More)
Tumor vaccination by the use of gene-modified cancer cells that provide costimulatory signals has been successfully applied in preclinical animal models and is currently evaluated in a variety of clinical settings. In previous work, we demonstrated the efficacy of B7.1/CD80 to promote tumor immunity in syngeneic murine models and to prevent deletion of(More)