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The espins are actin-bundling proteins of brush border microvilli and Sertoli cell-spermatid junctions. We have determined that espins are also present in hair cell stereocilia and have uncovered a connection between the espin gene and jerker, a recessive mutation that causes hair cell degeneration, deafness, and vestibular dysfunction. The espin gene maps(More)
The espin actin-bundling proteins, which are the target of the jerker deafness mutation, caused a dramatic, concentration-dependent lengthening of LLC-PK1-CL4 cell microvilli and their parallel actin bundles. Espin level was also positively correlated with stereocilium length in hair cells. Villin, but not fascin or fimbrin, also produced noticeable(More)
An approximately 30-kD isoform of the actin-binding/ bundling protein espin has been discovered in the brush borders of absorptive epithelial cells in rat intestine and kidney. Small espin is identical in sequence to the COOH terminus of the larger ( approximately 110-kD) espin isoform identified in the actin bundles of Sertoli cell-spermatid junctional(More)
The traditional theory of communicating hydrocephalus has implicated the bulk flow component of CSF motion; that is, hydrocephalus is generally understood as an imbalance between CSF formation and absorption. The theory that the cause of communicating hydrocephalus is malabsorption of CSF at the arachnoid villi is not substantiated by experimental evidence(More)
In multi-hop single transceiver Cognitive Radio networks (MSCRN), routing becomes of great challenge when IEEE 802.11 DCF is used as the MAC protocol. Routing should not base on common control channel because it is not ensured that common control channel can be obtained by each node. In this paper, we propose a spectrum aware on-demand routing which doesn't(More)
Espins are associated with the parallel actin bundles of hair cell stereocilia and are the target of mutations that cause deafness and vestibular dysfunction in mice and humans. Here, we report that espins are also concentrated in the microvilli of a number of other sensory cells: vomeronasal organ sensory neurons, solitary chemoreceptor cells, taste cells,(More)
We identified a group of actin-binding-bundling proteins that are expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) but are not detected in other neurons of the CNS. These proteins are novel isoforms of the actin-bundling protein espin that arise through the use of a unique site for transcriptional initiation and differential splicing. Light and electron(More)
Recessive mutations at the mouse pirouette (pi) locus result in hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction due to neuroepithelial defects in the inner ear. Using a positional cloning strategy, we have identified mutations in the gene Grxcr1 (glutaredoxin cysteine-rich 1) in five independent allelic strains of pirouette mice. We also provide sequence data of(More)
Varitint-waddler (Va and Va(J)) mice are deaf and have vestibular impairment, with inner ear defects that include the degeneration and loss of sensory hair cells. The semidominant Va mutation results in an alanine-to-proline substitution at residue 419 (A419P) of the presumed ion channel TRPML3. Another allele, Va(J), has the A419P mutation in addition to(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against invading pathogens, and it is recognized by a variety of pattern recognition molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL). MBL binds to mannose and N-acetylglucosamine residues present on the glycopolymers of microorganisms. Human serum MBL functions as an opsonin and activates the lectin(More)