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The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis threatens to make this disease incurable. Drug resistance mechanisms are only partially understood, and whether the current understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is sufficiently comprehensive remains unclear. Here we(More)
Epigenetic silencing including histone modifications and DNA methylation is an important tumorigenic mechanism. However, its role in cancer immunopathology and immunotherapy is poorly understood. Using human ovarian cancers as our model, here we show that enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and DNA(More)
The median survival for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine and radiation is approximately 1 year. To develop improved treatment, we have combined a Chk1/2-targeted agent, AZD7762, currently in phase I clinical trials, with gemcitabine and ionizing radiation in preclinical pancreatic tumor models. We found that in vitro(More)
PURPOSE The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-D(3)), exerts antiproliferative effects in cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (AC). CYP24A1 is overexpressed in many cancers and encodes the enzyme that catabolizes 1,25-D(3). The purpose of our study was to assess CYP24A1 as a prognostic marker and to study its relevance to(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important cellular components in the cancer microenvironment and may affect cancer phenotype and patient outcome. The nature of MDSCs and their interaction with CSCs in ovarian carcinoma are unclear. We examined the interaction between MDSCs and CSCs in patients with ovarian carcinoma(More)
It has been demonstrated that interleukin 24 (IL-24, also called melanoma differentiation associated gene 7) exerts antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated whether oncolytic adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of IL-24 could induce strong antitumor activity. A tumor-selective replicating adenovirus expressing IL-24 (ZD55-IL-24) was constructed by(More)
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is one of the most widely used anti-tumor agents. However, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is usually accompanied by adverse side effects such as thrombocytopenia, and the mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that cisplatin induced several platelet apoptotic events including up-regulation of Bax and Bak,(More)
It is generally accepted that the ARF tumor suppressor induces p53-dependent growth arrest by sequestering the p53 antagonist Mdm2 in the nucleolus. Previous mutagenic studies of murine ARF suggested that residues 1 through 14 and 26 through 37 were critical for Mdm2 binding, while the latter domain also governed ARF nucleolar localization. We show that(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been demonstrated in sarcoma. Trials using mTOR inhibitor in sarcoma have shown low objective response rates but progression-free survival (PFS) rates suggest cytostatic effects. The combination of sirolimus and cyclophosphamide demonstrated synergistic anti-sarcoma activity in(More)