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The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis threatens to make this disease incurable. Drug resistance mechanisms are only partially understood, and whether the current understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is sufficiently comprehensive remains unclear. Here we(More)
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is one of the most widely used anti-tumor agents. However, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is usually accompanied by adverse side effects such as thrombocytopenia, and the mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that cisplatin induced several platelet apoptotic events including up-regulation of Bax and Bak,(More)
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a latent tumor suppressor gene. To investigate the therapeutic effect of MnSOD and its mechanisms, a replication-competent recombinant adenovirus with E1B 55-kDa gene deletion (ZD55) was constructed, and human MnSOD and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) genes were inserted to form(More)
Little is known about how the immune system impacts human colorectal cancer invasiveness and stemness. Here we detected interleukin-22 (IL-22) in patient colorectal cancer tissues that was produced predominantly by CD4(+) T cells. In a mouse model, migration of these cells into the colon cancer microenvironment required the chemokine receptor CCR6 and its(More)
The median survival for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine and radiation is approximately 1 year. To develop improved treatment, we have combined a Chk1/2-targeted agent, AZD7762, currently in phase I clinical trials, with gemcitabine and ionizing radiation in preclinical pancreatic tumor models. We found that in vitro(More)
ZD55-MnSOD is an E1B 55 kDa-deleted replication-competent adenovirus and armed with the therapeutic gene MnSOD. The expression of the therapeutic gene MnSOD increases with the selective replication of the oncolytic adenovirus (ZD55) so that ZD55-MnSOD has more significant activity than the replicate defective adenovirus Ad-MnSOD in vitro and in vivo. The(More)
Ghrelin, a novel gastric hormone, regulates food intake and energy metabolism via central mechanisms. The peripheral effect of ghrelin on adiposity is poorly understood. We established a stable 3T3-L1 cell line expressing ghrelin to study the direct effect of ghrelin on adipogenesis. Cells overexpressing ghrelin demonstrate significantly attenuated(More)
Aspirin is widely used in the treatment of a number of clinical conditions. Although aspirin is being thought to be a relatively "safe" medicine, it also has some side effects, particularly the risk of bleeding which may be severe and lead to death. The mechanisms, however, are not totally understood. It has been reported recently that aspirin induces(More)
Invasive ductal carcinoma with lobular features (IDC-L) is not recognized as a distinct subtype of breast cancer, and its clinicopathologic features and outcomes are unknown. In this retrospective study, we focused on characterization of clinicopathologic features and outcomes of IDC-L and compared them to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive(More)