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The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis threatens to make this disease incurable. Drug resistance mechanisms are only partially understood, and whether the current understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis is sufficiently comprehensive remains unclear. Here we(More)
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a latent tumor suppressor gene. To investigate the therapeutic effect of MnSOD and its mechanisms, a replication-competent recombinant adenovirus with E1B 55-kDa gene deletion (ZD55) was constructed, and human MnSOD and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) genes were inserted to form(More)
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important cellular components in the cancer microenvironment and may affect cancer phenotype and patient outcome. The nature of MDSCs and their interaction with CSCs in ovarian carcinoma are unclear. We examined the interaction between MDSCs and CSCs in patients with ovarian carcinoma(More)
The median survival for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine and radiation is approximately 1 year. To develop improved treatment, we have combined a Chk1/2-targeted agent, AZD7762, currently in phase I clinical trials, with gemcitabine and ionizing radiation in preclinical pancreatic tumor models. We found that in vitro(More)
Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II) is one of the most widely used anti-tumor agents. However, cisplatin-based chemotherapy is usually accompanied by adverse side effects such as thrombocytopenia, and the mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that cisplatin induced several platelet apoptotic events including up-regulation of Bax and Bak,(More)
Little is known about how the immune system impacts human colorectal cancer invasiveness and stemness. Here we detected interleukin-22 (IL-22) in patient colorectal cancer tissues that was produced predominantly by CD4(+) T cells. In a mouse model, migration of these cells into the colon cancer microenvironment required the chemokine receptor CCR6 and its(More)
Ghrelin, a novel gastric hormone, regulates food intake and energy metabolism via central mechanisms. The peripheral effect of ghrelin on adiposity is poorly understood. We established a stable 3T3-L1 cell line expressing ghrelin to study the direct effect of ghrelin on adipogenesis. Cells overexpressing ghrelin demonstrate significantly attenuated(More)
Epigenetic silencing including histone modifications and DNA methylation is an important tumorigenic mechanism. However, its role in cancer immunopathology and immunotherapy is poorly understood. Using human ovarian cancers as our model, here we show that enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and DNA(More)
Aspirin is widely used in the treatment of a number of clinical conditions. Although aspirin is being thought to be a relatively "safe" medicine, it also has some side effects, particularly the risk of bleeding which may be severe and lead to death. The mechanisms, however, are not totally understood. It has been reported recently that aspirin induces(More)