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GPR41 and GPR43 are related members of a homologous family of orphan G protein-coupled receptors that are tandemly encoded at a single chromosomal locus in both humans and mice. We identified the acetate anion as an agonist of human GPR43 during routine ligand bank screening in yeast. This activity was confirmed after transient transfection of GPR43 into(More)
Experience indicates that the sense of presence in a virtual environment is enhanced when the participants are able to actively move through it. When exploring a virtual world by walking, the size of the model is usually limited by the size of the available tracking space. A promising way to overcome these limitations are motion compression techniques,(More)
Mobile eye-tracking in external environments remains challenging, despite recent advances in eye-tracking software and hardware engineering. Many current methods fail to deal with the vast range of outdoor lighting conditions and the speed at which these can change. This confines experiments to artificial environments where conditions must be tightly(More)
Using an immersive virtual reality system, we measured the ability of observers to detect the rotation of an object when its movement was yoked to the observer's own translation. Most subjects had a large bias such that a static object appeared to rotate away from them as they moved. Thresholds for detecting target rotation were similar to those for an(More)
As we move through the world, our eyes acquire a sequence of images. The information from this sequence is sufficient to determine the structure of a three-dimensional scene, up to a scale factor determined by the distance that the eyes have moved. Previous evidence shows that the human visual system accounts for the distance the observer has walked and the(More)
Our ability to return to the start of a route recently performed in darkness is thought to reflect path integration of motion-related information. Here we provide evidence that motion-related interoceptive representations (proprioceptive, vestibular, and motor efference copy) combine with visual representations to form a single multimodal representation(More)
Dynamic learning in humans has been extensively studied using externally applied force fields to perturb movements of the arm. These studies have focused on unimanual learning in which a force field is applied to only one arm. Here we examine dynamic learning during bimanual movements. Specifically we examine learning of a force field in one arm when the(More)
BACKGROUND There is a large body of evidence for the involvement of the parietal cortex in orientation and navigation in space. This has been supplemented by investigation of the contribution of a number of subregions using transcranial magnetic stimulation. OBJECTIVE The role of the precuneus area, located in the medial plane of posterior parietal cortex(More)
In the field of visual attention, bottom-up or saliency-based visual attention allows primates to detect non-specific conspicuous objects or targets in cluttered scenes. Simple multi-scale "feature maps" detect local spatial discontinuities in intensity, color, orientation, and are combined into a "saliency" map. HMAX is a feature extraction method and this(More)