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OBJECTIVE To estimate the allele frequency of C9orf72 (G4C2) repeats in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN The number of repeats was estimated by a 2-step genotyping strategy. For expansion carriers, we sequenced the repeat flanking regions and obtained(More)
OBJECTIVE Sorting mechanisms that cause the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-secretases and γ-secretases to colocalize in the same compartment play an important role in the regulation of Aβ production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We and others have reported that genetic variants in the Sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) increased the risk of AD,(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the term coined for the neurodegenerative disease often suspected in athletes with histories of repeated concussion and progressive dementia. Histologically, CTE is defined as a tauopathy with a distribution of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that is distinct from other tauopathies, and(More)
Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional(More)
Visual hallucinations are common in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathophysiology of visual hallucinations may involve enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and quetiapine, which have affinity for 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptors, are effective against visual hallucinations in PD. 5-HT(2A) receptors are(More)
We review the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the development of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) or secondary parkinsonism. Limited by methodological issues such as recall bias and confounding risk factors, epidemiological studies on the association between TBI and idiopathic PD have so far yielded mixed results. While clinical(More)
We report the finding of unique astrocytic inclusions in a series of pediatric epilepsy patients, all of whom presented with seizures in their first year of life and had mild-to-moderate developmental delay. All eventually underwent surgical treatment for refractory epilepsy and, on pathological examination, were found to have distinctive, eosinophilic,(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder typified by the presence of intraneuronal inclusions containing aggregated alpha synuclein (αsyn). The progression of parkinsonian pathology and clinical phenotype has been broadly demonstrated to follow a specific pattern, most notably described by Braak and colleagues. In more recent(More)
CR1 is a novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) gene identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Recently, we showed that AD risk could be explained by an 18-kilobase insertion responsible for the complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (CR1)-S isoform. We investigated the relevance of the CR1 isoforms to AD in a Canadian dataset. Also, we genotyped(More)
IMPORTANCE Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson disease (PD) known to date. The clinical features of manifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers are generally indistinguishable from those of patients with sporadic PD. However, some PD cases associated with LRRK2 mutations lack Lewy bodies (LBs), a(More)