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BACKGROUND Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is the term coined for the neurodegenerative disease often suspected in athletes with histories of repeated concussion and progressive dementia. Histologically, CTE is defined as a tauopathy with a distribution of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that is distinct from other tauopathies, and(More)
Small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) plays a number of roles in cellular events and recent evidence has given momentum for its contributions to neuronal development and function. Here, we have generated a SUMO1 transgenic mouse model with exclusive overexpression in neurons in an effort to identify in vivo conjugation targets and the functional(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the allele frequency of C9orf72 (G4C2) repeats in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). DESIGN The number of repeats was estimated by a 2-step genotyping strategy. For expansion carriers, we sequenced the repeat flanking regions and obtained(More)
We review the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the development of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) or secondary parkinsonism. Limited by methodological issues such as recall bias and confounding risk factors, epidemiological studies on the association between TBI and idiopathic PD have so far yielded mixed results. While clinical(More)
OBJECTIVE Sorting mechanisms that cause the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the β-secretases and γ-secretases to colocalize in the same compartment play an important role in the regulation of Aβ production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We and others have reported that genetic variants in the Sortilin-related receptor (SORL1) increased the risk of AD,(More)
BACKGROUND Glial cytoplasmic inclusions containing α-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Minimal change (MC-MSA) is an unusual MSA subtype with neuronal loss largely restricted to the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus. METHODS Immunohistochemistry on selected brain regions and semiquantitative assessment were(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to severe physical impairment, with a disease duration from onset to death of 6-9 years. METHODS The clinical and neuropathological features of 4 MSA cases with disease duration of 15 years or more were analyzed. RESULTS All patients presented with parkinsonism and had a(More)
Spatially targeted optical microproteomics (STOMP) is a novel proteomics technique for interrogating micron-scale regions of interest (ROIs) in mammalian tissue, with no requirement for genetic manipulation. Methanol or formalin-fixed specimens are stained with fluorescent dyes or antibodies to visualize ROIs, then soaked in solutions containing the(More)
Visual hallucinations are common in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathophysiology of visual hallucinations may involve enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine and quetiapine, which have affinity for 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(1A) receptors, are effective against visual hallucinations in PD. 5-HT(2A) receptors are(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The macroscopic anatomy of a common paraneural sheath that surrounds the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa has been studied recently in a human cadaveric study. It has been suggested that an injection through this sheath could be an ideal location for local anesthetic administration for popliteal block. The aim of the present(More)