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The rapid development of crops with multiple transgenic traits arouses the need for an efficient system for creating stacked cultivars. Most major crops rely on classical breeding to introgress the transgene from a laboratory variety to the numerous cultivars adapted to different growing regions. Even with vegetative propagated crops, genetic crosses are(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that bufalin has a good antitumor effect but has high toxicity, poor water solubility, a short half-life, a narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study aimed to determine the targeting efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs) made of(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four(More)
A 4-tube multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR), which showed higher sensitivity over conventional methods, was previously developed for the diagnosis of 14 viral pathogens of the respiratory tract. Herein the mRT-PCR was compared to the commercial Luminex mPCR-microsphere flow cytometry assay (Resplex II) which allows the detection of 12 different viruses. Eleven(More)
This study investigates the firing properties of the inspiratory-activated and inspiratory-inhibited airway vagal preganglionic neurons located in the external formation of the nucleus ambiguus. The results showed that inspiratory-activated and inspiratory-inhibited neurons are distributed with different density and site preference in this area.(More)
In patients of epilepsy a proportion of unexplained sudden deaths had been attributed to neurogenic arrhythmias. Although some evidence has suggested that epileptogenic activation of the cardiac parasympathetic nerves, which is revealed by ictal bradyarrhythmias or cardiac asystole, might be very critical in causing sudden deaths of patients of epilepsy the(More)
Therapeutic application of Asarum, a herbal medicine that has been used for centuries, reportedly causes acute respiratory disturbance. The responsible constituents, the sites of action, and the mechanisms involved in this side effect are unclear. We investigated the effects of β-asarone, a volatile constituent of Asarum, on neurotransmission in the(More)
Spatial normalization plays a key role in voxel-based analyses of brain images. We propose a highly accurate algorithm for high-dimensional spatial normalization of brain images based on the technique of symmetric optical flow. We first construct a three dimension optical model with the consistency assumption of intensity and consistency of the gradient of(More)
Substance P (SP) has been implicated in vagal control of heart rate and cardiac functions, but the mechanisms of SP actions on cardiac vagal activity remain obscure. The present study has investigated the effects of SP on the synaptic inputs of preganglionic cardiovagal motoneurons (CVNs) in brainstem slices of neonatal rat. Whole-cell voltage-clamp(More)
With the growing amount of on-line information and its dynamic nature, users' burden of retrieving information has become heavier and existing passive working is too inefficient to meet users' needs. An intelligent information retrieval model based on multi-agent paradigm and conceptual graphs is proposed. The model (IIR agent) has two layers of group agent(More)