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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a severe viral disease in pigs, causing great economic losses worldwide each year. The causative agent of the disease, PRRS virus (PRRSV), is a member of the family Arteriviridae. Here we report our investigation of the unparalleled large-scale outbreaks of an originally unknown, but so-called "high(More)
The rapid development of crops with multiple transgenic traits arouses the need for an efficient system for creating stacked cultivars. Most major crops rely on classical breeding to introgress the transgene from a laboratory variety to the numerous cultivars adapted to different growing regions. Even with vegetative propagated crops, genetic crosses are(More)
A 4-tube multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR), which showed higher sensitivity over conventional methods, was previously developed for the diagnosis of 14 viral pathogens of the respiratory tract. Herein the mRT-PCR was compared to the commercial Luminex mPCR-microsphere flow cytometry assay (Resplex II) which allows the detection of 12 different viruses. Eleven(More)
Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm (FCM) is often used for image segmentation but it is sensitive to noise. This paper presents an extended fuzzy local information c-means clustering algorithm for robust image segmentation. In this method, a novel fuzzy factor created by the neighborhood spatial and gray information is integrated into the objective function(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that bufalin has a good antitumor effect but has high toxicity, poor water solubility, a short half-life, a narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study aimed to determine the targeting efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs) made of(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) epidemics are the result of human-to-human or poultry-to-human transmission. Tracking seasonal outbreaks of IAV and other avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes that can infect humans, aquatic and migratory birds, poultry, and pigs is essential for epidemiological surveillance and outbreak alerts. In this study, we performed four(More)
Therapeutic application of Asarum, a herbal medicine that has been used for centuries, reportedly causes acute respiratory disturbance. The responsible constituents, the sites of action, and the mechanisms involved in this side effect are unclear. We investigated the effects of β-asarone, a volatile constituent of Asarum, on neurotransmission in the(More)
The interaction between two TEMPO spin centers connected to a photoswitchable overcrowded alkene changes from noncoupled (three-line EPR spectrum) in the trans state, where the two spin centers are separated by ∼22 Å, to strongly coupled (five-line EPR spectrum) in the cis state, where the separation is ∼7 Å, upon photoswitching. Importantly, the(More)
Driving molecular rotary motors using visible light (530-550 nm) instead of UV light was achieved using palladium tetraphenylporphyrin as a triplet sensitizer. Visible light driven rotation was confirmed by UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism and (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the rotation was confirmed to be unidirectional and with similar photostationary(More)
Azobenzenes have been used as photoresponsive units for the control of numerous biological processes. Primary prerequisites for such applications are site-selective incorporation of photoswitchable units into biomolecules and the possibility of using non-destructive and deep-tissue-penetrating visible light for the photoisomerization. Here we report a(More)