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Chemokines play a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. It has been observed recently that certain viruses have evolved molecular piracy and mimicry mechanisms by encoding and synthesizing proteins that interfere with the normal host defense response. One such viral protein, vMIP-II, encoded by human herpesvirus 8, has been identified with in(More)
Hyperuricemia is associated with renal disease, but it is usually considered a marker of renal dysfunction rather than a risk factor for progression. Recent studies have reported that mild hyperuricemia in normal rats induced by the uricase inhibitor, oxonic acid (OA), results in hypertension, intrarenal vascular disease, and renal injury. This led to the(More)
Previous studies have reported that uric acid stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in vitro. We hypothesized that uric acid may also have direct proinflammatory effects on VSMCs. Crystal- and endotoxin-free uric acid was found to increase VSMC monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner,(More)
Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to(More)
Graphene oxide (GO) sheets were introduced to stabilize the melted polyethylene glycol (PEG) during the solid-liquid phase change process, which can be used as a smart heat storage system. The structural properties and phase change behaviors of the PEG-GO composites were comprehensively investigated as a function of the PEG content by means of various(More)
Hyperuricemia is associated with hypertension and vascular disease, but whether this represents a causal relationship or an epiphenomenon remains unknown. We recently reported a model of mild hyperuricemia in rats that results in increased blood pressure and mild renal fibrosis. In this study, we examined the effect of hyperuricemia on the renal(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which includes increased macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) and upregulation of chemokines and cytokines. T cells also play important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis but have not been well studied in obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS Flow cytometric analysis(More)
Clearance of recruited immune cells is necessary to resolve inflammatory reactions. We show here that matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), as part of an interleukin 13 (IL-13)-dependent regulatory loop, dampens inflammation by promoting the egress of inflammatory cells into the airway lumen. MMP2-/- mice showed a robust asthma phenotype and increased(More)
Humans have elevated serum uric acid as a result of a mutation in the urate oxidase (uricase) gene that occurred during the Miocene. We hypothesize that the mutation provided a survival advantage because of the ability of hyperuricemia to maintain blood pressure under low-salt dietary conditions, such as prevailed during that period. Mild hyperuricemia in(More)
Acute renal failure (ARF) during sepsis is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen radicals, including superoxide (O(2)(-)). Because O(2)(-) reacts with NO in a rapid manner, it plays an important role in modulating NO levels. Therefore, scavenging of O(2)(-) by superoxide dismutase (SOD) may be critical for preserving NO bioavailability. In(More)