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The ability to transport a large quantity of drug molecules into cytosolic compartments of cancer cells has powerful implications in modern molecular therapeutics because the sites of action of the drugs are often cytosolic organelles. Furthermore, direct cytosolic delivery might offer a means to evade efflux transporters, such as multidrug-resistance(More)
Targeted delivery of intracellularly active diagnostics and therapeutics in vivo is a major challenge in cancer nanomedicine. A nanocarrier should possess long circulation time yet be small and stable enough to freely navigate through interstitial space to deliver its cargo to targeted cells. Herein, it is shown that by adding targeting ligands to(More)
Principal components analysis (PCA) has been successfully used to correct for population stratification in genome-wide association studies of common variants. However, rare variants also have a role in common disease etiology. Whether PCA successfully controls population stratification for rare variants has not been addressed. Thus we evaluate the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Admixture mapping is a powerful gene mapping approach for an admixed population formed from ancestral populations with different allele frequencies. The power of this method relies on the ability of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to infer ancestry along the chromosomes of admixed individuals. In this study, more than one million SNPs from(More)
Nurr1 is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for development and survival of dopaminergic neurons. Mutations in Nurr1 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and there is a correlation between Nurr1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in PD brain. Two domains, activation function 1 (AF1) at the N-terminus and AF2 at the C-terminus of Nurr1, are(More)
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for spe-cifi c gene suppression in vivo and more recently has reached human clinical trials as a potential therapeutic approach. [ 1 ] Due to their highly negative charge, naked siRNAs cannot readily penetrate through cell membranes and thus require delivery strategies. A variety of nonviral delivery(More)
Next-generation sequencing technologies now make it possible to genotype and measure hundreds of thousands of rare genetic variations in individuals across the genome. Characterization of high-density genetic variation facilitates control of population genetic structure on a finer scale before large-scale genotyping in disease genetics studies. Population(More)
—Auction-based models and protocols introduce money and pricing as the technique for coordination between users and producers of resources in grids. In this paper, we propose a multi-attribute reverse auction protocol to allocate grid resource. In order to enhance the information efficiency we develop a novel interactive approach supporting both user agents(More)
The standard approach to determine unique or shared genetic factors across populations is to identify risk alleles in one population and investigate replication in others. However, since populations differ in DNA sequence information, allele frequencies, effect sizes, and linkage disequilibrium patterns, SNP association using a uniform stringent threshold(More)