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“The value concept, more than any other, should occupy a central position . . . able to unify the apparently diverse interests of all the sciences concerned with human behavior.” These words, proclaiming the centrality of the value concept, were written by a psychologist (Rokeach, 1973, p. 3), but similar stands have been taken by sociologists (e.g.,(More)
What motivates individual self-sacrificial behavior in intergroup conflicts? Is it the altruistic desire to help the in-group or the aggressive drive to hurt the out-group? This article introduces a new game paradigm, the intergroup prisoner's dilemma-maximizing difference (IPD-MD) game, designed specifically to distinguish between these two motives. The(More)
Building on the contributions of diverse theoretical approaches, the authors present a multidimensional model of group identification. Integrating conceptions from the social identity perspective with those from research on individualism-collectivism, nationalism- patriotism, and identification with organizations, we propose four conceptually distinct modes(More)
Independent field experiments in 23 large cities around the world measured three types of spontaneous, nonemergency helping: alerting a pedestrian who dropped a pen, offering help to a pedestrian with a hurt leg trying to reach a pile of dropped magazines, and assisting a blind person cross the street. The results indicated that a city’s helping rate was(More)
What motivates individual self-sacrificial behavior in intergroup conflicts? Is it the altruistic desire to help the in-group or the aggressive drive to hurt the outgroup? This article introduces a new game paradigm, the intergroup prisoner’s dilemma–maximizing difference (IPD-MD) game, designed specifically to distinguish between these two motives. The(More)
Relations of individuals' value priorities to their worries are investigated in seven samples from four cultural groups (N = 1,441). A social-cognitive analysis suggests that value priorities influence worries by increasing attention to and perception of threats to valued goals. On this basis, we generate hypotheses relating two types of worries, micro(More)
Two studies investigated how values affect competitive versus cooperative behavior. Each Study presented a new social-dilemma game, in which participants’ interpretations of the dilemma (i.e., their subjective payoff matrix)—and consequently the dominant (i.e., rational) behavioral choice—depended on their values. The Paired Charity Game (Study 1) framed(More)
Integrating findings on the effects of more alternatives with findings on the effects of more attributes, we offer a motivational decision-making model, suggesting that epistemic motivation moderates individuals’ responses to complex information. Study 1 empirically investigated the shared essence of four conceptualizations of epistemic motivation, further(More)
This article presents a comprehensive conceptualization of the structure of worry and the relation of worry to mental health and well-being. It is assumed that worries have two facets, namely, the object of a worry (e.g., self, close others, society, the world) and the domain of a worry (the field of life with which it is concerned). The object of a worry(More)