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Embryonic morphogenesis is accomplished by cellular movements, rearrangements, and cell fate inductions. Vertebrate gastrulation entails morphogenetic processes that generate three germ layers, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm, shaped into head, trunk, and tail. To understand how cell migration mechanistically contributes to tissue shaping during(More)
The neuroectoderm of the vertebrate gastrula was proposed by Nieuwkoop to be regionalized into forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord by a two-step process. In the activation step, the Spemann gastrula organizer induces neuroectoderm with anterior character, followed by posteriorization by a transforming signal. Recently, simultaneous inhibition of(More)
In vertebrates, paraxial mesoderm is partitioned into repeating units called somites. It is thought that the mechanical forces arising from compaction of the presumptive internal cells of prospective somites cause them to detach from the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm [1-3]. To determine how prospective somites physically segregate from each other, we used(More)
Gastrulation is a fundamental phase of animal embryogenesis during which germ layers are specified, rearranged, and shaped into a body plan with organ rudiments. Gastrulation involves four evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements, each of which results in a specific morphologic transformation. During emboly, mesodermal and endodermal cells become(More)
During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension cell movements are coordinated with the anteroposterior and mediolateral embryonic axes. Wnt planar cell polarity (Wnt/PCP) signaling polarizes the motile behaviors of cells with respect to the anteroposterior embryonic axis. Understanding how Wnt/PCP signaling mediates convergence and extension(More)
The development of a uninucleate ameba into a multinucleate, syncytial plasmodium in myxomycetes involves a change from the open, astral mitosis of the ameba to the intranuclear, anastral mitosis of the plasmodium, and the omission of cytokinesis from the cell cycle. We describe immunofluorescence microscopic studies of the amebal-plasmodial transition(More)
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