Lila Karpowicz

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The classification of surgical innovation as clinical care, research, or as third distinct type of activity creates ambiguity which impacts standards for disclosure and informed consent. We conducted a systematic review of the conceptual literature to identify positions expressed about consent and disclosure, as well as major tension points associated with(More)
Surgical innovation typically falls under the purview of neither conventional clinical ethics nor research ethics. Due to a lack of oversight for surgical innovation-combined with a potential for significant risk-a wide range of arguments has been advanced in the literature to support or undermine various oversight mechanisms. To scrutinize the(More)
Layer II of the parasubiculum (PaS) receives excitatory synaptic input from the CA1 region of the hippocampus and sends a major output to layer II of the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex. The PaS also receives heavy cholinergic innervation from the medial septum, which contributes to the generation of theta-frequency (4-12 Hz) electroencephalographic(More)
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