Likun Zhang

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During laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon's hand-eye coordination is often disrupted by the incongruent mapping between the orientation of the endoscopic view and the actual operative field. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of automatic image realignment on the performance of laparoscopic surgery. The first experiment investigated how(More)
Surgical technique evolved from traditional open surgery to laparoscopic surgery, offering patients reduced pain and quick recovery. Recently, a new approach called natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has emerged. In NOTES, procedures may be transvaginal, transgastric, or transrectal or transesophageal. NOTES procedures present new(More)
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