Likun Zhang

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During laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon's hand-eye coordination is often disrupted by the incongruent mapping between the orientation of the endoscopic view and the actual operative field. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of automatic image realignment on the performance of laparoscopic surgery. The first experiment investigated how(More)
Laparoscopic surgery requires more specialized training of the surgeons than traditional open surgery. The Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Surgical Trainer (VBLaST) is being developed as a virtual version of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS) trainer. This study assessed the current haptic and virtual reality (VR) technology of a virtual peg transfer(More)
The bifurcation behaviors of a parametrically excited solitary wave are investigated via Faraday's water tank experiment. It is observed that, as the driving frequency fd is decreased or/and the driving amplitude Ad is increased, the standing (but vertically oscillatory) solitary wave becomes modulationally unstable, leading to the temporal modulation of(More)
Surgical technique evolved from traditional open surgery to laparoscopic surgery, offering patients reduced pain and quick recovery. Recently, a new approach called natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has emerged. In NOTES, procedures may be transvaginal, transgastric, or transrectal or transesophageal. NOTES procedures present new(More)
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