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Since 2008, Mainland China has undergone widespread outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). In order to determine the characteristics of epidemics and enteroviruses (EV) associated with HFMD in Tianjin, in northern China, epidemiological and virological data from routine surveillance were collected and analyzed. In Tianjin, a persistent epidemic(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the function of the novel uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) gene R049 during host infection. We infected the urinary tracts of mice with E. coli UPEC132 or the R049 deletion mutant UPEC132ΔR049.The mouse kidneys were harvested at 4 and 8h post-infection and screened for differentially expressed genes by(More)
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