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In extremely acidic environments, enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli rely on the amino acid antiporter AdiC to expel protons by exchanging intracellular agmatine (Agm(2+)) for extracellular arginine (Arg(+)). AdiC is a representative member of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily of membrane transporters. The structure of(More)
The mammalian CNS lacks the ability to effectively compensate for injury by the regeneration of damaged axons or axonal plasticity of intact axons. However, reports suggest that molecular or cellular manipulations can induce compensatory processes that could support regeneration or plasticity after trauma. We tested whether local, sustained release of the(More)
Virulent enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 rely on acid-resistance (AR) systems to survive the acidic environment in the stomach. A major component of AR is an arginine-dependent arginine:agmatine antiporter that expels intracellular protons. Here, we report the crystal structure of AdiC, the arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli(More)
We reported recently that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) by motoneurons in the spinal cord of rats will induce sprouting of corticospinal tract (CST) axons (Zhou et al. [2003] J. Neurosci. 23:1424-1431). We now report that overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the rat(More)
The binding of the adaptor protein APPL1 to adiponectin receptors is necessary for adiponectin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle, yet the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that in muscle cells adiponectin and metformin induce AMPK activation by promoting APPL1-dependent LKB1 cytosolic translocation.(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with obesity-induced insulin resistance, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that ER stress-induced insulin receptor (IR) down-regulation may play a critical role in obesity-induced insulin resistance. The expression levels of IR are negatively associated with the ER(More)
The mechanism of action of commonly used antidepressants remains an issue of debate. In the experiments reported here we studied the effects of three representative compounds, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the selective serotonin reuptake enhancer tianeptine and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine on the(More)
Binding of insulin receptor substrate proteins 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) to the insulin receptor (IR) is essential for the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. However, the mechanism of IRS1/2 recruitment to the IR remains elusive. Here, we identify adaptor protein APPL1 as a critical molecule that promotes IRS1/2-IR interaction. APPL1 forms a(More)
Script identification is required for a multilingual OCR system. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient technique for Bangla/English script identification with applications to the destination address block of Bangladesh envelope images. The proposed approach is based upon the analysis of connected component profiles extracted from the destination(More)
The adaptor protein APPL1 mediates the stimulatory effect of adiponectin on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, yet the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that, in C(2)C(12) cells, overexpression or suppression of APPL1 enhanced or suppressed, respectively, adiponectin-stimulated p38 MAPK upstream kinase cascade,(More)