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The mammalian CNS lacks the ability to effectively compensate for injury by the regeneration of damaged axons or axonal plasticity of intact axons. However, reports suggest that molecular or cellular manipulations can induce compensatory processes that could support regeneration or plasticity after trauma. We tested whether local, sustained release of the(More)
In extremely acidic environments, enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli rely on the amino acid antiporter AdiC to expel protons by exchanging intracellular agmatine (Agm(2+)) for extracellular arginine (Arg(+)). AdiC is a representative member of the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily of membrane transporters. The structure of(More)
Virulent enteric pathogens such as Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 rely on acid-resistance (AR) systems to survive the acidic environment in the stomach. A major component of AR is an arginine-dependent arginine:agmatine antiporter that expels intracellular protons. Here, we report the crystal structure of AdiC, the arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli(More)
We reported recently that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) by motoneurons in the spinal cord of rats will induce sprouting of corticospinal tract (CST) axons (Zhou et al. [2003] J. Neurosci. 23:1424-1431). We now report that overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the rat(More)
The mechanism of action of commonly used antidepressants remains an issue of debate. In the experiments reported here we studied the effects of three representative compounds, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, the selective serotonin reuptake enhancer tianeptine and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine on the(More)
Binding of insulin receptor substrate proteins 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) to the insulin receptor (IR) is essential for the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. However, the mechanism of IRS1/2 recruitment to the IR remains elusive. Here, we identify adaptor protein APPL1 as a critical molecule that promotes IRS1/2-IR interaction. APPL1 forms a(More)
This study investigates the role of glycogenolysis in stimulated release of ATP as a transmitter from astrocytes. Within the last 20 years our understanding of brain glycogenolysis has changed from it being a relatively uninteresting process to being a driving force for essential brain functions like production of transmitter glutamate and homoeostasis of(More)
Script identification is required for a multilingual OCR system. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient technique for Bangla/English script identification with applications to the destination address block of Bangladesh envelope images. The proposed approach is based upon the analysis of connected component profiles extracted from the destination(More)
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a common form of peripheral neuropathy, yet the mechanisms responsible for chronic pain in this disease are poorly understood. The up-regulation of the expression and function of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 has been implicated in DN, however, the exact mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we found that a proportion(More)
CD147 or EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily in humans. It is widely expressed in human tumors and plays a central role in the progression of many cancers by stimulating the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. CD147 regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell migration, metastasis and differentiation,(More)