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The origin of the turtle body plan remains one of the great mysteries of reptile evolution. The anatomy of turtles is highly derived, which renders it difficult to establish the relationships of turtles with other groups of reptiles. The oldest known turtle, Proganochelys from the Late Triassic period of Germany, has a fully formed shell and offers no clue(More)
Several reports have revealed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in many types of solid tumors. Some studies have demonstrated that side population (SP) cells isolated from diverse cancer lines harbor cancer stem-like properties, but there are few reports examining the characteristic of SP cells in human cervical cancer. The aim of this study is 1) to find(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. DESIGN A national cross-sectional study in China. SETTING In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. PARTICIPANTS Involved 81 786 children(More)
Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants(More)
Deciphering the influence of genetics on primary metabolism in plants will provide insights useful for genetic improvement and enhance our fundamental understanding of plant growth and development. Although maize (Zea mays) is a major crop for food and feed worldwide, the genetic architecture of its primary metabolism is largely unknown. Here, we use(More)
OBJECTIVES To establish a taxol-resistant cell line of human ovarian carcinoma (A2780/Taxol) and investigate its biological features. METHODS The drug-resistant cell line (A2780/Taxol) was established by continuous stepwise selection with increasing concentrations of Taxol. Cell morphology was assessed by microscopy and growth curves were generated with(More)
Protein retention in the enamel layer during tooth formation is well known to be associated with dental fluorosis but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) correlate directly with secreted protein metabolism. We used an ameloblast-derived cell line to determine whether excessive amounts of fluoride cause ER(More)
BACKGROUND Type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-I) agonists have been applied for the treatment of steroid-dependent tumors such as breast carcinoma, ovarian cancer and prostatic carcinoma. But the mechanism has not been clarified yet. There are few reports about the treatment of endometrial carcinoma using GnRH-I agonists. Type II GnRH (GnRH-II) is(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether silence of PKC-α expression by small interference RNA (siRNA) might regulate MDR1 expression and reverse chemoresistance of ovarian cancer. METHODS We measured gene and protein expression of MDR1 and PKC-α in ovarian cancer cells and assessed their correlation with cell drug resistance. We also examined whether blocking(More)
BACKGROUND Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress-mediated apoptosis were reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. In a recent study, it was reported that the ER stress pathway was activated in the lungs of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. It was also found that the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), an apoptosis-related(More)