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The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, a chronic neurological disorder that affects approximately one percent of the world population, are not well understood. Using a mouse model of epilepsy, we show that seizures induce elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and enhanced leukocyte rolling and arrest in brain vessels(More)
Murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) home to bone marrow in part by rolling on P-selectin and E-selectin expressed on endothelial cells. Human adult CD34(+) cells, which are enriched in HSPCs, roll on endothelial selectins in bone marrow vessels of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. Many human umbilical(More)
Mucin-type O-linked oligosaccharides (O-glycans) are primary components of the intestinal mucins that form the mucus gel layer overlying the gut epithelium. Impaired expression of intestinal O-glycans has been observed in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), but its role in the etiology of this disease is unknown. Here, we report that mice with intestinal(More)
P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) mediates rolling of leukocytes on P-selectin under flow. The glycoproteins that enable leukocyte tethering to or rolling on E-selectin are not known. We used gene targeting to prepare PSGL-1-deficient (PSGL-1-/-) mice, which were healthy but had moderately elevated total blood leukocytes. Fluid-phase E-selectin(More)
OBJECTIVE The inner mucus layer in mouse colon normally separates bacteria from the epithelium. Do humans have a similar inner mucus layer and are defects in this mucus layer a common denominator for spontaneous colitis in mice models and ulcerative colitis (UC)? METHODS AND RESULTS The colon mucus layer from mice deficient in Muc2 mucin, Core 1(More)
To assess the feasibility of using animal excrement to biomonitor the extent of heavy metal contamination in the marine environment, concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the fresh excrement of seabirds and marine mammals, along with other biomaterials, from the Arctic, Antarctica (West and East), and Xisha Archipelago of(More)
Normal bone marrow (BM) contains T cells whose function and origin are poorly understood. We observed that CD8+ T cells in BM consist chiefly of CCR7+ L-selectin+ central memory cells (TCMs). Adoptively transferred TCMs accumulated more efficiently in the BM than naive and effector T cells. Intravital microscopy (IVM) showed that TCMs roll efficiently in BM(More)
In many mid-Atlantic forests where both native and non-native earthworms exist, it is the non-native species that are the dominant component of the soil macrofauna. Few earthworm ecology studies, however, focus attention on these forest systems in order to determine the relative ecological roles and potential interactions of the native and non-native(More)
In inflamed venules, leukocytes use P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) to roll on P-selectin and E-selectin and to activate integrin alphaLbeta2 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, LFA-1) to slow rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Studies in cell lines have suggested that PSGL-1 requires its cytoplasmic domain to localize(More)
The heavily O-glycosylated mucin MUC2 constitutes the major protein in the mucosal layer that acts as a physical barrier protecting the epithelial layer in the colon. In this study, Muc2 was purified from mucosal scrapings from the colon of wild-type (WT) mice, core 3 transferase knockout (C3Gnt(-/-)) mice and intestinal epithelial cell-specific core 1(More)