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Viral infection triggers host innate immune responses through activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF 3, which coordinately regulate the expression of type-I interferons such as interferon-beta (IFN-beta). Herein, we report the identification of a novel protein termed MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling), which mediates the activation(More)
Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also called DDX58) is a cytosolic viral RNA receptor that interacts with MAVS (also called VISA, IPS-1 or Cardif) to induce type I interferon-mediated host protective innate immunity against viral infection. Furthermore, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which contain a cluster of a RING-finger(More)
The presence of DNA in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells is a danger signal that triggers host immune responses such as the production of type I interferons. Cytosolic DNA induces interferons through the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, or cGAMP), which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING.(More)
Cytosolic DNA induces type I interferons and other cytokines that are important for antimicrobial defense but can also result in autoimmunity. This DNA signaling pathway requires the adaptor protein STING and the transcription factor IRF3, but the mechanism of DNA sensing is unclear. We found that mammalian cytosolic extracts synthesized cyclic guanosine(More)
The activation of NF-kappaB and IKK requires an upstream kinase complex consisting of TAK1 and adaptor proteins such as TAB1, TAB2, or TAB3. TAK1 is in turn activated by TRAF6, a RING domain ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the synthesis of lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Here we present evidence that TAB2 and TAB3 are receptors that bind(More)
Retroviruses, including HIV, can activate innate immune responses, but the host sensors for retroviruses are largely unknown. Here we show that HIV infection activates cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to produce cGAMP, which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING to induce type I interferons and other(More)
RIG-I detects invading viral RNA and activates the transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF3 through the mitochondrial protein MAVS. Here we show that RNA bearing 5'-triphosphate strongly activates the RIG-I-IRF3 signaling cascade in a reconstituted system composed of RIG-I, mitochondria, and cytosol. Activation of RIG-I requires not only RNA but also(More)
In response to viral infection, RIG-I-like RNA helicases bind to viral RNA and activate the mitochondrial protein MAVS, which in turn activates the transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB to induce type I interferons. [corrected] We have previously shown that RIG-I binds to unanchored lysine-63 (K63) polyubiquitin chains and that this binding is important for(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global epidemic manifested mainly by chronic infection. One strategy that HCV employs to establish chronic infection is to use the viral Ser protease NS3/4A to cleave some unknown cellular targets involved in innate immunity. Here we show that the target of NS3/4A is the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, MAVS, that(More)