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Inhibition by intracellular H(+) (pH gating) and activation by phosphoinositides such as PIP(2) (PIP(2)-gating) are key regulatory mechanisms in the physiology of inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels. Our recent findings suggest that PIP(2) gating and pH gating are controlled by an intra-subunit H-bond at the helix-bundle crossing between a lysine(More)
A loss of function mutation in the TRESK K2P potassium channel (KCNK18), has recently been linked with typical familial migraine with aura. We now report the functional characterisation of additional TRESK channel missense variants identified in unrelated patients. Several variants either had no apparent functional effect, or they caused a reduction in(More)
Specific stimuli such as intracellular H+ and phosphoinositides (e.g., PIP2) gate inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels by controlling the reversible transition between the closed and open states. This gating mechanism underlies many aspects of Kir channel physiology and pathophysiology; however, its structural basis is not well understood. Here, we(More)
The pH-sensitive renal potassium channel Kir1.1 is important for K+ homeostasis. Disruption of the pH-sensing mechanism causes type II Bartter syndrome. The pH sensor is thought to be an anomalously titrated lysine residue (K80) that interacts with two arginine residues as part of an 'RKR triad'. We show that a Kir1.1 orthologue from Fugu rubripes lacks(More)
Several inwardly-rectifying (Kir) potassium channels (Kir1.1, Kir4.1 and Kir4.2) are characterised by their sensitivity to inhibition by intracellular H(+) within the physiological range. The mechanism by which these channels are regulated by intracellular pH has been the subject of intense scrutiny for over a decade, yet the molecular identity of the(More)
The molecular identity of ion channels which confer PCO(2)/pH sensitivity in the brain is unclear. Heteromeric Kir4.1/Kir5.1 channels are highly sensitive to inhibition by intracellular pH and are widely expressed in several brainstem nuclei involved in cardiorespiratory control, including the locus coeruleus. This has therefore led to a proposed role for(More)
Recent genetic linkage studies have identified an association between missense variations in the gene encoding the Kir4.1 potassium channel (KCNJ10) and seizure susceptibility phenotypes in both humans and mice. The results of this study demonstrate that these variations (T262S and R271C) do not produce any observable changes in channel function or in(More)
Comparison of the crystal structures of the KcsA and MthK potassium channels suggests that the process of opening a K+ channel involves pivoted bending of the inner pore-lining helices at a highly conserved glycine residue. This bending motion is proposed to splay the transmembrane domains outwards to widen the gate at the “helix-bundle crossing”. However,(More)
X-ray crystallography has provided tremendous insight into the different structural states of membrane proteins and, in particular, of ion channels. However, the molecular forces that determine the thermodynamic stability of a particular state are poorly understood. Here we analyze the different X-ray structures of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel(More)
As an important economic insect, Bombyx mori is also a useful model organism for lepidopteran insect. Integrins are evolutionarily conserved from sponges to humans, and play vital roles in many physiological and pathological processes. To explore their diverse functions of integrins in insect, eleven integrins including six α and five β subunits were cloned(More)