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China is an important counterexample to the findings in the law, institutions, finance, and growth literature: neither its legal nor financial system is well developed by existing standards, yet it has one of the fastest growing economies. We compare growth in the State Sector (state-owned firms), the Listed Sector (publicly listed firms), and the Private(More)
The potential of grazing lands to sequester carbon must be understood to develop effective soil conservation measures and sustain livestock production. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of grazing on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in Typical steppe and Desert steppe ecosystems, which are both important(More)
The major aims of this study were, firstly, to analyse the grazing-induced steppe degradation process and, secondly, to identify an efficient and sustainable grazing management system for the widely degraded Inner Mongolian typical steppe ecosystem. From 2005–2008 a grazing experiment was conducted to compare two grazing management systems, the Mixed System(More)
BACKGROUND With the properties of three-column fixation and anterior-approach-only procedure, anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) is ideal for severe multilevel traumatic cervical instabilities. However, the accurate insertion of ATPS remains challenging. Here we constructed a patient-specific biocompatible drill template and evaluated its accuracy in(More)
In the present study, we have utilized X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (ELM), and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) to examine the surface adsorption and protein resistance behavior of bio-inspired polymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugated to peptide mimics of mussel adhesive proteins.(More)
This paper presents a comparative study on the antifouling properties of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymer coatings prepared by surface-initiated polymerization (SIP). Three types of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMEMA) polymer thin films of approximate 100 nm thickness were grafted from a catechol initiator that was(More)
Anatomical corrosion casts of human specimens are useful teaching aids. However, their use is limited due to ethical dilemmas associated with their production, their lack of perfect reproducibility, and their consumption of original specimens in the process of casting. In this study, new approaches with modern distribution of complex anatomical spatial(More)
In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of a catecholic initiator for surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) from metal surfaces to create antifouling polymer coatings. A new bifunctional initiator inspired by mussel adhesive proteins was synthesized, which strongly adsorbs to Ti and 316L stainless steel (SS) substrates, providing an anchor for surface(More)
Polymer nanocomposites of core–shell structure were prepared by grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from TiO2 nanoparticle via the surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) strategy. A bifunctional polymerization initiator inspired by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), a key constituent of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), was designed and synthesized(More)
During testing, it is nearly impossible to run all statments or branches of a program. It is especially difficult to test the code used to respond to exceptional conditions. This untested code, often the error recovery code, will tend to be an error prone part of a system. We show that test coverage can be increased through an “assertion violation”(More)