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Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI signal during the resting state are increasingly being studied in healthy and diseased brain in humans and animal models. Yet, the relationship between functional brain status and the characteristics of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations remains poorly understood. In order to obtain(More)
Intertemporal choice, the tradeoff among outcomes occurring at different points in time, involves not only benefit options but also those associated with cost. Previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on discounting future gains; thus the neural mechanism underlying discounting future losses remains unidentified. Using event-related functional(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous thought processes (STPs), also called daydreaming or mind-wandering, occur ubiquitously in daily life. However, the functional significance of STPs remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we first identified an STPs-network whose activity was positively correlated(More)
Brain functions during the resting state have attracted considerable attention in the past several years. However, little has been known about spontaneous activity in the sensory cortices in the task-free state. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the existence of spontaneous activity in the primary visual areas (PVA)(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether older adults can use voice information to unmask speech. DESIGN Under a voice-priming condition, before a target-speech sentence was presented with a noise or speech masker, one or two voice-priming sentences were recited with the same voice reciting the target sentence. Eighteen younger adults and 12 older adults with(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global problem and is steadily increasing worldwide in almost every bacterial species treated with antibiotics. In aquaculture, the therapeutic options for the treatment of A. hydrophila infection were only limited to several antibiotics, which contributed for the fast-speed emergence of drug tolerance.(More)