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Spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI signal during the resting state are increasingly being studied in healthy and diseased brain in humans and animal models. Yet, the relationship between functional brain status and the characteristics of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations remains poorly understood. In order to obtain(More)
Intertemporal choice, the tradeoff among outcomes occurring at different points in time, involves not only benefit options but also those associated with cost. Previous neuroimaging studies have primarily focused on discounting future gains; thus the neural mechanism underlying discounting future losses remains unidentified. Using event-related functional(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous thought processes (STPs), also called daydreaming or mind-wandering, occur ubiquitously in daily life. However, the functional significance of STPs remains largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we first identified an STPs-network whose activity was positively correlated(More)
Brain functions during the resting state have attracted considerable attention in the past several years. However, little has been known about spontaneous activity in the sensory cortices in the task-free state. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the existence of spontaneous activity in the primary visual areas (PVA)(More)
Editor's Note: These short, critical reviews of recent papers in the Journal, written exclusively by graduate students or postdoctoral fellows, are intended to summarize the important findings of the paper and provide additional insight and commentary. For more information on the format and purpose of the Journal Club, please see Review of Hedden et al.(More)
OBJECTIVE Genetic polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may influence the effects of H. pylori infection and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the polymorphisms of TLR4 and TLR9 are associated with susceptibility to gastric carcinoma and its prognosis. METHODS This study consisted of 314(More)
The dominant theories about risky decision-making assume that decision conflicts are solved by a compensatory process involving a trade-off of probability against payoff, but it is unclear whether these theories actually represent the events that occur when people make a risky decision. By contrasting a preferential choice with a judgment-based choice that(More)
β-Galactosidases can transfer the galactosyl from lactose or galactoside donors to various acceptors and thus are especially useful for the synthesis of important glycosides. However, these enzymes have limitations in the glycosylation of phenolic compounds that have many physiological functions. In this work, the β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus(More)
The emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has become established as a major public health threat and represents a new challenge in the treatment of infectious diseases. In this study, we report a high incidence and endemic spread of NDM-1-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates in Henan province, China. Eight (72.7%) out(More)