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Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine in DNA by ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of enzymes has been demonstrated to play a significant role in epigenetic regulation in mammals. We found that Tet enzymes also possess the activity of catalyzing the formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (5-hmrC) in RNA in vitro. In addition, the catalytic domains of all three Tet(More)
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation has been proposed as a future therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. However, NSC transplantation will be hampered by the limited number of brain donors and the toxicity of immunosuppressive regimens that might be needed with allogeneic transplantation. These limitations may be avoided if NSCs can be generated from(More)
Arx is a homeobox-containing gene with a high degree of sequence similarity between mouse and zebrafish. Arx is expressed in the forebrain and floor plate of the developing central nervous systems of these vertebrates and in the presumptive cortex of fetal mice. Our goal was to identify genes in Xp22.1-p21.3 involved in human neuronal development. Our in(More)
Cytosine DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark in most eukaryotic cells that regulates numerous processes, including gene expression and stress responses. We performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We mapped the positions of methylated cytosines and identified a single functional DNA(More)
Understanding the factors that govern human forebrain regionalization along the dorsal-ventral and left-right (L-R) axes is likely to be relevant to a wide variety of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. Recent work in lower vertebrates has identified several critical signaling molecules involved in embryonic patterning along these axes.(More)
Factors that interact with the epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor receptors have numerous effects in the central nervous system (CNS), inducing the proliferation of CNS stem cells and astrocytes and the survival and differentiation of neurons. Both receptors are expressed in the embryonic rodent brain in proliferative and nonproliferative(More)
DDB2 exhibits a high affinity toward UV-damaged DNA, and it is involved in the initial steps of global genome nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in the DDB2 gene cause the genetic complementation group E of xeroderma pigmentosum, an autosomal recessive disease manifested clinically by hypersensitivity to sunlight exposure and an increased predisposition(More)
Thiopurines are among the most successful chemotherapeutic agents used for treating various human diseases, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic inflammation. Although metabolic conversion and the subsequent incorporation of 6-thioguanine ((S)G) nucleotides into nucleic acids are considered important for allowing the thiopurine drugs to induce(More)
Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a toxic heavy metal and a well-known human carcinogen. The toxic effects of Cd(2+) on biological systems are diverse and thought to be exerted through a complex array of mechanisms. Despite the large number of studies aimed to elucidate the toxic mechanisms of action of Cd(2+), few have been targeted toward investigating the ability of(More)
The rising interest in understanding the functions, regulation, and maintenance of the epitranscriptome calls for robust and accurate analytical methods for the identification and quantification of post-transcriptionally modified nucleosides in RNA. Monomethylations of cytidine and adenosine are common post-transcriptional modifications in RNA. Herein, we(More)
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