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Elaborate mechanisms have evolved for the translocation of nucleus-encoded proteins across the plastid envelope membrane. Although putative components of the import apparatus have been identified biochemically, their role in import remains to be proven in vivo. An Arabidopsis mutant lacking a new component of the import machinery [translocon at the outer(More)
Dickkopf1 (Dkk1) is a secreted protein that acts as a Wnt inhibitor and, together with BMP inhibitors, is able to induce the formation of ectopic heads in Xenopus. Here, we show that Dkk1 null mutant embryos lack head structures anterior of the midbrain. Analysis of chimeric embryos implicates the requirement of Dkk1 in anterior axial mesendoderm but not in(More)
Liver-specific and nonliver-specific methionine adenosyltransferases (MATs) are products of two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, respectively, that catalyze the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), the principal biological methyl donor. Mature liver expresses MAT1A, whereas MAT2A is expressed in extrahepatic tissues and is induced during liver growth and(More)
The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and the AP-1 heterodimer, Fos-Jun, cooperatively bind a composite DNA site and synergistically activate the expression of many immune-response genes. A 2.7-A-resolution crystal structure of the DNA-binding domains of NFAT, Fos and Jun, in a quaternary complex with a DNA fragment containing the distal(More)
Myxomatosis in European rabbits is a severely debilitating disease characterized by profound systemic cellular immunosuppression and a high rate of mortality. The causative agent, myxoma virus, is a member of the poxvirus family and prototype of the Leporipoxvirus genus. As a major step toward defining the genetic strategies by which the virus circumvents(More)
Mouse myosin V is a two-headed unconventional myosin with an extended neck that binds six calmodulins. Double-headed (heavy meromyosin-like) and single-headed (subfragment 1-like) fragments of mouse myosin V were expressed in Sf9 cells, and intact myosin V was purified from mouse brain. The actin-activated MgATPase of the tissue-purified myosin V, and its(More)
Spinal cord function is normally influenced by descending activity from supraspinal structures. When injury removes or distorts this influence, function changes and spasticity and other disabling problems eventually appear. Understanding how descending activity affects spinal cord function could lead to new means for inducing, guiding, and assessing(More)
Many viruses regulate translation of polycistronic mRNA using a -1 ribosomal frameshift induced by an RNA pseudoknot. A pseudoknot has two stems that form a quasi-continuous helix and two connecting loops. A 1.6 A crystal structure of the beet western yellow virus (BWYV) pseudoknot reveals rotation and a bend at the junction of the two stems. A loop base is(More)
Conflicting roles for protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in cardiac disease have been reported. Here, deltaPKC-selective activator and inhibitor peptides were designed rationally, based on molecular modeling and structural homology analyses. Together with previously identified activator and inhibitor peptides of epsilonPKC, deltaPKC peptides were used to(More)
Although transcriptional hierarchies have been extensively studied in invertebrates, their involvement in mammalian cell-type specification is poorly understood. Here we report a hepatocyte transcriptional cascade suggested by the expression patterns of hepatic transcription factors in dedifferentiated hepatomas and hepatocyte: fibroblast hybrids in which(More)