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MicroRNA (miRNA) expression in fetal human retinal pigment epithelium (hfRPE), retina, and choroid were pairwise compared to determine those miRNAs that are enriched by 10-fold or more in each tissue compared with both of its neighbors. miRs-184, 187, 200a/200b, 204/211, and 221/222 are enriched in hfRPE by 10- to 754-fold compared with neuroretina or(More)
VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for(More)
Platelet-derived growth factor CC (PDGF-CC) is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on the original members of the family, PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC remains largely to be explored. We report a novel finding that PDGF-CC is a potent neuroprotective factor that acts by modulating(More)
The primary cilium originates from the mother centriole and participates in critical functions during organogenesis. Defects in cilia biogenesis or function lead to pleiotropic phenotypes. Mutations in centrosome-cilia gene CC2D2A result in Meckel and Joubert syndromes. Here we generate a Cc2d2a(-/-) mouse that recapitulates features of Meckel syndrome(More)
Despite its early discovery and high sequence homology to the other VEGF family members, the biological function of VEGF-B remained debatable for a long time, and VEGF-B has received little attention from the field thus far. Recently, we and others have found that (1) VEGF-B is a potent survival factor for different types of cells by inhibiting apoptosis(More)
PURPOSE To increase the database of genes expressed in human cornea and to gain insights into the molecular basis of keratoconus (KC). METHODS A cDNA library was constructed from KC corneas harvested at keratoplasty and used for expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. Data were analyzed using grouping and identification of sequence tags (GRIST). Expression(More)
Defects in cilia centrosomal genes cause pleiotropic clinical phenotypes, collectively called ciliopathies. Cilia biogenesis is initiated by the interaction of positive and negative regulators. Centriolar coiled coil protein 110 (CP110) caps the distal end of the mother centriole and is known to act as a suppressor to control the timing of ciliogenesis.(More)
In phagocytic cells, including the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), acidic compartments of the endolysosomal system are regulators of both phagocytosis and autophagy, thereby helping to maintain cellular homeostasis. The acidification of the endolysosomal system is modulated by a proton pump, the V-ATPase, but the mechanisms that direct the activity of the(More)
The importance of identifying VEGF-independent pathways in pathological angiogenesis is increasingly recognized as a result of the emerging drug resistance to anti-VEGF therapies. PDGF-CC is the third member of the PDGF family discovered after more than two decades of studies on PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB. The biological function of PDGF-CC and the underlying(More)
Astrocytes migrate from the optic nerve into the inner retina, forming a template upon which retinal vessels develop. In the Nuc1 rat, mutation in the gene encoding βA3/A1-crystallin disrupts both Notch signalling in astrocytes and formation of the astrocyte template. Here we show that loss of βA3/A1-crystallin in astrocytes does not impede Notch ligand(More)