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In application to numerical analysis of geotechnical problems, the limit-state surface is usually not known in any closed form. The probability of failure can be assessed via the so-called reliability index. A minimization problem can naturally be formed with an implicit equality constraint defined as the limit-state function and optimization methods can be(More)
Tanshinone is widely used for treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular diseases with increasing demand. Herein, key enzyme genes SmHMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase) and SmDXR (1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase) involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway were introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza (Sm) hairy roots to enhance(More)
Camptothecin (CPT) belongs to a group of monoterpenoidindole alkaloids (TIAs) and its derivatives such as irinothecan and topothecan have been widely used worldwide for the treatment of cancer, giving rise to rapidly increasing market demands. Genes from Catharanthus roseus encoding strictosidine synthase (STR) and geraniol 10-hydroxylase (G10H), were(More)
Camptothecin (CPT) is a kind of modified monoterpene indole alkaloid firstly identified from woody plant Camptotheca acuminata, and its semisynthetic CPT analogs irinothecan and topothecan are clinically used for the treatment of various cancers throughout the world. However, the extraction of CPT from limited natural CPT-producing plant resources couldn’t(More)
Chalcone synthase (CHS, EC is a member of the plant polyketide synthase superfamily; it catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we identified and characterized five CHS superfamily genes from Nicotiana tabacum. Our phylogenetic analysis suggested that the five tobacco CHS genes have diverged into(More)
Dynamic transcriptional changes of the host early responses genes were detected in PVY-resistant tobacco varieties infected with Potato virus Y; PVY resistance is a complex process that needs series of stress responses. Potato virus Y (PVY) causes a severe viral disease in cultivated crops, especially in Solanum plants. To understand the molecular basis of(More)
Tropane alkaloids (TAs) such as anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are extensively used in clinical practice as anticholinergic agents. Anisodus acutangulus produces TAs in root tissue, and although several genes involved in scopolamine biosynthesis have been cloned, yet the biosynthetic pathway of TAs remains poorly understood. To further(More)