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Mutations in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene have been shown to be responsible for a rare familial form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, polymorphic variants in multiple regions of the gene have been associated with susceptibility to idiopathic PD in different populations. Previous studies in Japanese have found a strong association between(More)
Common genetic variants that increase the risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) may differentiate patient subgroups and influence future individual therapeutic strategies. Previous studies have found associations between PD and polymorphisms located within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene in ethnic Han Chinese from Taiwan and Singapore. Herein, we(More)
Occupational exposure and experimental intoxication with n-hexane or its metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (HD) produce a central-peripheral neuropathy. However, the mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that HD affected the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Male adult Wistar(More)
Estrogen has been reported to affect pain perception, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this investigation, pain behavior testing, patch clamp recording, and immunohistochemistry were used on rats and transgenic mice to determine which estrogen receptors (ERs) and the related signaling pathway are involved in the rapid modulation of(More)
Acrylamide (ACR) is a known industrial neurotoxic chemical that can induce neurodegeneration. Cytoskeletal protein aggregation is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. This study was an initial exploration on cytoskeletal proteins in plasma as potential biomarkers of ACR neurotoxicity. Low and high ACR groups received 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg(More)
Acrylamide (ACR) is known to produce central–peripheral distal axonopathy, which is characterized by distal swellings and secondary degeneration both in experimental animals and human. Ultrastructurally, excessive accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs) in the distal swollen axon is a major pathological hallmark. However, the mechanisms of ACR axonopathy(More)
Occupational exposure and experimental intoxication with acrylamide (ACR) produce neuropathy characterized by nerve degeneration. To investigate the mechanism of ACR-induced neuropathy, male adult Wistar rats were given ACR (20, 40 mg/kg i.p. 3 days/week) for 8 weeks. Sciatic nerves were Triton-extracted and centrifuged at a high speed (100,000 × g) to(More)
Exposure chronically to n-hexane produces peripheral–central axonopathy mediated by 2,5-hexanedione (HD). Previous studies have demonstrated decreases in neurofilament (NF) contents of peripheral and central nervous regions from rats intoxicated with HD, and recent analysis has demonstrated that axonal atrophy, instead of NF-filled swellings, is a specific(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) share several clinical and neuropathologic features, and studies suggest that several gene mutations and polymorphisms are involved in both conditions. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and ALS, and the C(-1562)T polymorphism in the MMP-9 gene leads to(More)
BACKGROUND The primary objective of this study was to assess whether Zhengtian Capsule was non-inferior to flunarizine in efficacy and safety profile for prevention of migraine in adults. METHODS This was a double-dummy, double-blind, multicenter, positive drug (flunarizine), parallel randomized controlled, non-inferior clinical trial. Patients (n = 360)(More)