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Although invertebrates are incapable of adaptive immunity, immunal reactions which are functionally similar to the adaptive immunity of vertebrates have been described in many studies of invertebrates including insects. The phenomenon was termed immune priming. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of immune priming, we employed Illumina/Solexa(More)
Excessive use of thifensulfuron-methyl has raised concerns for environmental contamination and phytotoxicity to crops. Experiments were performed to isolate a microorganism that can degrade thifensulfuron-methyl and assess its effectiveness. A bacterial isolate, Ochrobactrum sp. ZWS16, capable of degrading thifensulfuron-methyl was studied. The half-life(More)
Osteoblasts produce various types of cytokines under pathological conditions and control osteoclast differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been demonstrated to exert complex effects in osteoblasts under local inflammatory conditions, including in periodontal and periapical diseases. Interleukin-34 (IL-34) has been recently identified as a(More)
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