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Influenza A remains a significant public health challenge because of the emergence of antigenically shifted or highly virulent strains. Antiviral resistance to available drugs such as adamantanes or neuraminidase inhibitors has appeared rapidly, creating a need for new antiviral targets and new drugs for influenza virus infections. Using forward chemical(More)
OBJECTIVE Berberine (BBR) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance. We investigated the mechanism of activation of AMPK by BBR and explored whether derivatization of BBR could improve its in vivo efficacy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AMPK phosphorylation was examined in L6(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) chiefly characterizes a progressively neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, and eventually leads to irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. The β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced neurodegeneration is believed to be the main pathological mechanism of AD, and Aβ production inhibition or its clearance promotion is one of the promising(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a key factor in the negative regulation of insulin pathway and a promising target for treatment of diabetes and obesity. Herein, a series of competitive inhibitors were optimized from oleanolic acid, a natural triterpenoid identified against PTP1B by screening libraries of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. Modifying at(More)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease caused by genetic or environmental factors. It has rendered a severe menace to the middle-aged and elderly, while there is still lack of efficient drugs against this disease. The pathogenic mechanism for DM is complex, and the complicated networks related to this disease involve distinct signaling pathways.(More)
Nine new dammarane saponins, 1-9, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial part of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, an edible plant of the Cucurbitaceae family, that grows wildly in China. Their structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR analysis, as well as by chemical degradation. Aglycons 21,24-cyclopentyldammar-25-ene of 6 and 7, and(More)
Six new withanolides, withacoagulins A-F (1-6, resp.), together with ten known withanolides, 7-16, were isolated from the aerial parts of Withania coagulans. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques including 1D- and 2D-NMR (1H, 13C, HMQC, and HMBC) and MS experiments. These compounds, including the crude extracts of this herb, exhibited(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key element in the negative regulation of the insulin signaling pathway and may play an important role in diabetes and obesity. We identified ursolic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid that occurs widely in traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, as an inhibitor of PTP1B by screening an extract library of the(More)
Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is a principal glucose transporter in response to insulin, and impaired translocation or decreased expression of GLUT4 is believed to be one of the major pathological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, induction of GLUT4 translocation or/and expression is a promising strategy for anti-T2DM drug discovery.(More)
Four new withanolides, physagulins L-O (1-4), were isolated from the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae), together with seven known withanolides, compounds 5-11. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including 1H-, 13C-NMR (DEPT), and 2D-NMR (HMBC, HMQC, 1H,1H-COSY, NOESY) experiments, as well as by(More)