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Two recursive and numerically stable matrix algorithms for modeling layered diffraction gratings, the S-matrix algorithm and the R-matrix algorithm, are systematically presented in a form that is independent of the underlying grating models, geometries, and mountings. Many implementation variants of the algorithms are also presented. Their physical(More)
A novel H7N9 influenza A virus first detected in March 2013 has since caused more than 130 human infections in China, resulting in 40 deaths. Preliminary analyses suggest that the virus is a reassortant of H7, N9 and H9N2 avian influenza viruses, and carries some amino acids associated with mammalian receptor binding, raising concerns of a new pandemic.(More)
Since 2013 the occurrence of human infections by a novel avian H7N9 influenza virus in China has demonstrated the continuing threat posed by zoonotic pathogens. Although the first outbreak wave that was centred on eastern China was seemingly averted, human infections recurred in October 2013 (refs 3-7). It is unclear how the H7N9 virus re-emerged and how it(More)
We present results of numerical simulations and preliminary experiments to investigate and characterize the effect of asymmetrical coupling of normally incident light to surface plasmon polaritons ͑SPPs͒ on metallic blazed gratings. Two types of blazed gratings are investigated, a two-dimensional ͑2D͒ area-coded binary grating and a one-dimensional ͑1D͒(More)
Outbreaks of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) raise questions about the prevalence and evolution of the MERS coronavirus (CoV) in its animal reservoir. Our surveillance in Saudi Arabia in 2014 and 2015 showed that viruses of the MERS-CoV species and a human CoV 229E-related lineage co-circulated at high prevalence, with frequent co-infections in the(More)
The development of a multichannel spectrometer based on single mode planar integrated optical waveguide and capable of measuring broad-band visible absorbance spectra of a weakly absorbing molecular film at a solid-liquid interface is reported. The system was successfully tested by measuring spectra, over a 100 nm bandwidth, of a hydrated film of cytochrome(More)
The ongoing avian H7N9 influenza outbreaks in China have caused significant human fatal cases and the virus is becoming established in poultry. Mutations with potential to increase mammalian adaptation have occurred in the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) and other viral genes. Here we found that dual 627K and 701N mutations could readily occur during(More)
  • James K Cable, Chris Bauer, +11 authors Devon Bell The
  • 2004
The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Iowa Department of Transportation or of the Iowa Highway Research Board. The mission of the PCC Center is to advance the state of the art of portland cement concrete pavement technology. The center focuses on improving design,(More)